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Flashcards in 1st Semester Exam Review Deck (92):
1

3 primary reasons for early civilizations to interact with the ocean

Food, trade, discovering new lands

2

Photosynthesis

6CO2 + 6H2O ➡️ C6H12O6 + 6O2

3

Sponges feed by

Circulating water through their body. Most food is digested by amebocytes

4

Archaeocytes vs choanocytes

Choanocytes have flagella that move food
Archaeocytes circulate food and water

5

Scientist

Someone who uses the process of science to find answers about how and why things work in the world and universe

6

How much have humans explored the ocean?

5%

7

Marine science

The process of discovering facts and processes that explain the ocean, it's life forms, and it's interaction with other earth systems

8

What made true exploration of the ocean possible

Technology

9

Science

Body of knowledge and method to gain knowledge about the observable universe

10

Hypothesis

Educated guess that you can test

11

Theory

Scientific explanation eith observable evidence to support it

12

Phoenician contributions?

Established the first trade route throughout the Mediterranean and as far north as Great Britain

13

Significance of Polynesian seafaring?

Earliest regular, long distance, open ocean seafaring

14

Parallel is another name for

Latitude lines

15

The 0 degree parallel is called

Equator

16

Meridian is another name for

Longitude lines

17

2 technological innovations found in Chinese ships by the mid 1400s were

Central rudders, watertight compartments

18

Primary motivations for ocean explorations of the 15th century

Economics, politics, religion

19

Change that led to growth and expansion of marine science in the 20th century was primarily

Science and technology of the industrial revolution

20

Noted discovery made by the second H. M.S. Challenger was

Finding the deepest part of the ocean (Mariana's trench)

21

AUVs

Untethered with own power source, piloted by onboard computer

22

ROV

Unmanned ship with propellers

23

Pelagic vs benthic

Sea vs depths of the sea

24

Photic zone

Lighted region of ocean where photosynthesis occurs

25

Plankton

Plants/animals that exist adrift in ocean currents

26

Nekton

Organisms that swim

27

Neuston

Float on surface ex: Portuguese man of war

28

Primary consumer

Organism that eats autotroph

29

Secondary consumer

Eats primary consumer

30

How much available energy transfers from each level of the trophic pyramid to the next

10%

31

Zooplankton

Feed on phytoplankton and smaller zooplankton

32

Holdfast

Attaches kelp to rock

33

Stipe

Connects to the blade

34

Air bladders

Keep leaf blades floating toward surface to receive sunlight

35

Term that means separate sexes

Dioecious

36

Two classes of cnidarian that spend their adult stage in polyp body form?

Hydrozoan and Anthozoan

37

Produces a Calcium carbonate cup or skeleton in which it lives

Hard coral

38

How does science progress?

Technology and disproving theories

39

What contributions did the Egyptians make to navigation circa 3200 BC?

First recorded voyage

40

First expedition around the world was led by who, when?

Magellan, 1519-1522

41

Darwins hypothesis explains that coral reefs form through a process of coral growth as

The sea floor subsides

42

Expedition commonly recognized as the first developed entirely to marine science is

Challenger expedition

43

Benefits of gps on seafaring and oceanography?

Navigation more accurate

44

Autotroph

Makes its own food

45

Heterotroph

Must consume food

46

Nekton

Organisms that swim (fish, sharks, etc)

47

Organisms that live on the sea bottom

Epifauna, epiflora

48

Organisms that live buried or partially buried in sea bottom

Infauna

49

Cellular respiration

Converting glucose into a usable energy form

50

Most primary production in the sea from

Phytoplankton

51

Diatom is an organism characterized by

She'll made of silica

52

Trophic pyramid

Energy transfers from one level of organisms to the next as they consume each other

53

A good web better represents the flow of energy in nature than a trophic pyramid because

It shows more detail

54

Decomposition is essential to life because

Organic material is broken down into inorganic material

55

The bioluminescent phytoplankton Noctiluca and the red tide organism Karenia breve are found in which group?

Dinoflagellates

56

What might affect phytoplankton growth rates?

Clarity, salinity, available nutrients

57

Meroplankton

Spend part of their life as plankton

58

Holoplankton

Spend entire life as plankton

59

Outer transparent case of the diatom is composed of what material?

Silica

60

What's the cause of loss of salt marsh, mangrove, and other estuarine habitat?

Construction

61

Larval stages of starfish, barnacles, and crabs belong to which type of plankton?

Zooplankton, meroplankton

62

Examples of low energy shorelines where salt marshes can be found?

Bay, bayou, sound

63

Estuary

Salt and freshwater meet

64

Prop roots or drop roots are found on the

Red mangrove

65

Why are estuaries important?

Nursery for juvenile fish

66

Zooxanthellae is

Mutualistic algae

67

Separate sexes

Dioecious

68

Two classes of Cnidaria that spend their adult stage as polyps?

Hydrozoa, Anthozoa

69

Nematocysts

Coiled, harpoon like stinger inside cnidocyte

70

Which organism produces a calcium carbonate cup or skeleton in which it lives?

Hard coral polyp

71

Ephyra

Juvenile medusa

72

What type of relationship between the coral animal and the algae that lives within its tissue?

Mutualistic

73

Planula

Ciliates larval stage of jellyfish

74

Which organism can move by sliding on its pedal disc?

Anemone

75

How many rows of comb plates are found on comb jellies?

8

76

What is the nerve net found on jellyfish?

Nervous system

77

What hydrozoan is actually a colony of special polyps that depend on each other for survival?

Portuguese man of war

78

What type of symmetry is exhibited by Cnidarians?

Radial

79

What type of symmetry is exhibited in sponges?

Asymmetric

80

The cell that secretes and encloses the nematocyst on Cnidarians

Cnidocyte

81

Collapse of the canal and structure of a sponge is prevented by what?

Spicules

82

Organisms which can reproduce both sexually and asexually are called?

Monoecious

83

How do sponges reproduce?

Budding, gemmules, sexual

84

Internal cavity or inner chamber of the sponge

Spongocoel

85

Classes of the Porifera phylum are separated based on what?

Spicules

86

Water enters a sponge through what?

Ostia

87

Sponges feed on

Bacteria, algae, protozoans, detritus

88

Only true system found on sponges?

Skeletal

89

Sponge sex cells leave the sponge by way of the

Excurrent flow

90

Oscula

Large opening in a sponge where wastes exit

91

Skeletal structures of sponges are composed of

Calcium carbonate, spicules, spongin, silicon dioxide

92

Possible uses for sponge toxin?

-temper rejection of organ transplant
-slow or stop growth of anger cells
-anti-inflammatory