Flashcards in 1st Semester Exam Review Deck (92):
3 primary reasons for early civilizations to interact with the ocean
Food, trade, discovering new lands
6CO2 + 6H2O ➡️ C6H12O6 + 6O2
Sponges feed by
Circulating water through their body. Most food is digested by amebocytes
Archaeocytes vs choanocytes
Choanocytes have flagella that move food
Archaeocytes circulate food and water
Someone who uses the process of science to find answers about how and why things work in the world and universe
How much have humans explored the ocean?
The process of discovering facts and processes that explain the ocean, it's life forms, and it's interaction with other earth systems
What made true exploration of the ocean possible
Body of knowledge and method to gain knowledge about the observable universe
Educated guess that you can test
Scientific explanation eith observable evidence to support it
Established the first trade route throughout the Mediterranean and as far north as Great Britain
Significance of Polynesian seafaring?
Earliest regular, long distance, open ocean seafaring
Parallel is another name for
The 0 degree parallel is called
Meridian is another name for
2 technological innovations found in Chinese ships by the mid 1400s were
Central rudders, watertight compartments
Primary motivations for ocean explorations of the 15th century
Economics, politics, religion
Change that led to growth and expansion of marine science in the 20th century was primarily
Science and technology of the industrial revolution
Noted discovery made by the second H. M.S. Challenger was
Finding the deepest part of the ocean (Mariana's trench)
Untethered with own power source, piloted by onboard computer
Unmanned ship with propellers
Pelagic vs benthic
Sea vs depths of the sea
Lighted region of ocean where photosynthesis occurs
Plants/animals that exist adrift in ocean currents
Organisms that swim
Float on surface ex: Portuguese man of war
Organism that eats autotroph
Eats primary consumer
How much available energy transfers from each level of the trophic pyramid to the next
Feed on phytoplankton and smaller zooplankton
Attaches kelp to rock
Connects to the blade
Keep leaf blades floating toward surface to receive sunlight
Term that means separate sexes
Two classes of cnidarian that spend their adult stage in polyp body form?
Hydrozoan and Anthozoan
Produces a Calcium carbonate cup or skeleton in which it lives
How does science progress?
Technology and disproving theories
What contributions did the Egyptians make to navigation circa 3200 BC?
First recorded voyage
First expedition around the world was led by who, when?
Darwins hypothesis explains that coral reefs form through a process of coral growth as
The sea floor subsides
Expedition commonly recognized as the first developed entirely to marine science is
Benefits of gps on seafaring and oceanography?
Navigation more accurate
Makes its own food
Must consume food
Organisms that swim (fish, sharks, etc)
Organisms that live on the sea bottom
Organisms that live buried or partially buried in sea bottom
Converting glucose into a usable energy form
Most primary production in the sea from
Diatom is an organism characterized by
She'll made of silica
Energy transfers from one level of organisms to the next as they consume each other
A good web better represents the flow of energy in nature than a trophic pyramid because
It shows more detail
Decomposition is essential to life because
Organic material is broken down into inorganic material
The bioluminescent phytoplankton Noctiluca and the red tide organism Karenia breve are found in which group?
What might affect phytoplankton growth rates?
Clarity, salinity, available nutrients
Spend part of their life as plankton
Spend entire life as plankton
Outer transparent case of the diatom is composed of what material?
What's the cause of loss of salt marsh, mangrove, and other estuarine habitat?
Larval stages of starfish, barnacles, and crabs belong to which type of plankton?
Examples of low energy shorelines where salt marshes can be found?
Bay, bayou, sound
Salt and freshwater meet
Prop roots or drop roots are found on the
Why are estuaries important?
Nursery for juvenile fish
Two classes of Cnidaria that spend their adult stage as polyps?
Coiled, harpoon like stinger inside cnidocyte
Which organism produces a calcium carbonate cup or skeleton in which it lives?
Hard coral polyp
What type of relationship between the coral animal and the algae that lives within its tissue?
Ciliates larval stage of jellyfish
Which organism can move by sliding on its pedal disc?
How many rows of comb plates are found on comb jellies?
What is the nerve net found on jellyfish?
What hydrozoan is actually a colony of special polyps that depend on each other for survival?
Portuguese man of war
What type of symmetry is exhibited by Cnidarians?
What type of symmetry is exhibited in sponges?
The cell that secretes and encloses the nematocyst on Cnidarians
Collapse of the canal and structure of a sponge is prevented by what?
Organisms which can reproduce both sexually and asexually are called?
How do sponges reproduce?
Budding, gemmules, sexual
Internal cavity or inner chamber of the sponge
Classes of the Porifera phylum are separated based on what?
Water enters a sponge through what?
Sponges feed on
Bacteria, algae, protozoans, detritus
Only true system found on sponges?
Sponge sex cells leave the sponge by way of the
Large opening in a sponge where wastes exit
Skeletal structures of sponges are composed of
Calcium carbonate, spicules, spongin, silicon dioxide