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Flashcards in Plankton Test Deck (57):
1

The tiny plant like organism which causes red tide is called a?

Dinoflagellates

2

What is the purpose of the flagella on dinoflagellates?

Spins cell around
Propels it through water

3

When are blooms created that release toxin into the water?

When certain dinoflagellates are in higher than normal concentrations

4

In Florida waters, what is the scientific name for the most common red tide dinoflagellates?

Karenia brevis

5

How do dinoflagellates reproduce?

Cell division

6

How often do dinoflagellates reproduce?

Every 48-120 hours

7

What 4 factors influence the growth of K. brevis?

-sunlight
-temperature
-salinity
-amount/type of nutrients available in the water

8

What 2 factors play a role in determining when and where blooms will occur?

-winds
-currents

9

When can K. brevis blooms be a problem for people?

When winds and currents drive the blooms close to shore, where they can be concentrated

10

Why do researchers off the coast of Florida believe that red tide blooms are not related to pollution?

Red tide blooms have happened for hundreds of years, long before man-made pollution became prevalent

11

K. brevis red tide blooms occur most frequently between what months of the year?

August-February

12

How do K. brevis toxins affect fishes?

Paralyzes the nerves of the fish causing death by suffocation

13

What is the greatest threat to humans posed by K. brevis red tides?

Consumption of bivalve shellfish that have been contaminated with red tide toxins

14

If humans consume clams, mussels, oysters, or coquinas, that have been contaminated with the red tide toxin what can happen to them?

They can become ill with Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning

15

What are some symptoms of Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning?

Nausea, diarrhea, tingling of fingers and toes, reversal of sensations (hot seems cold, cold seems hot)

16

In humans, how long does it usually take for the symptoms of NSP to occur?

Few minutes to several hours

17

What does the Florida Department of Environmental Protection do when beds are threatened by red tide blooms?

Closes harvesting areas

18

Besides poisoning, how else can people be affected during red tide blooms?

Sneezing, coughing, general respiratory irritation

19

List the four reasons why it would be extremely difficult and costly to get rid of a red tide?

-red tide blooms occur over hundreds to thousands of square miles
-distributed throughout the water column
-can be moved great distances along the coast
-fluctuate daily with tides

20

Why are chemical and biological control agents not a practical alternative to control and disperse the red tide blooms?

May adversely affect other forms of marine life

21

What technology is being used today to detect and track the movement of ocean currents and blooms?

Satellites

22

What does the term plankton mean?

Float or drift in ocean

23

2 main types of plankton?

Zooplankton and phytoplankton

24

Why must phytoplankton remain in the photic zone?

They need sunlight to make food for themselves

25

Why are phytoplankton important for sustaining life?

They create the nutrients that all other animals eat

26

What are the shells of diatoms made of?

Silica

27

Why are dinoflagellates considered to be between plants and animals?

They produce their own food, but when there isn't enough light they eat other plankton

28

What do zooplankton feed on?

Phytoplankton, smaller zooplankton

29

What are animals that spend their entire lives as plankton called?

Holo plankton

30

What are animals that spend only part of their lives as plankton (usually as larvae) called?

Meroplankton

31

What are two animals besides the crab that experience the meroplankton stage?

Shrimp, oysters

32

What equipment is used to catch plankton?

Plankton net

33

Small, usually microscopic plant and animal organisms that float or drift on the ocean

Plankton

34

Plant plankton

Phytoplankton

35

Lighted region of the ocean, where photosynthesis can occur

Photic zone

36

Animal plankton

Zooplankton

37

Tiny whiplike hairs used for movement or catching food

Flagella

38

Small plankton with characteristics of both plants and animals, causes red tide

Dinoflagellates

39

Organisms that spend entire lives as plankton

Holo plankton

40

Organisms that spend only part of their lives as plankton

Meroplankton

41

Composed of two identical halves encased in a shell made of silica or glass; most common phytoplankton

Diatom

42

Single felled holo plankton with a transparent body or she'll

Radiolarian

43

Single felled holo plankton with a calcium carbonate shell

Foraminiferan

44

Long, threadlike structures that hang from some organisms; may contain dangerous stinging cells

Tentacles

45

Young planktonic larval stage of crab

Zoea

46

Small crustaceans that have two long antennae for movement and gathering food; most common zooplankton

Copepods

47

Planktonic larval stage of the crab; follows the zoeal stage

Megalops

48

Open spaces in a net or screen

Mesh

49

Cone shaped net of fine mesh that is pulled through the water to collect plankton

Plankton net

50

Platonic shrimp larva

Mysis

51

Foot like projection

Pseudopod

52

Form of an organism that is immature and very different looking than the adult organim

Larva

53

Primary consumer

Eat primary producers and photo synthesizing bacteria

54

Secondary consumer

Eat primary consumers

55

Decomposer

Break down organic material into inorganic form

56

In trophic pyramid or food chain, how much of the available energy is transferred form one level to the next?

10%

57

The Red Tide phenomenon has been documented along Florida's Gulf Coast since when?

1840s