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Flashcards in 2 Digestive system Deck (95):
1

What are the four stages of digestion?

1. Ingesting, 2. Digesting, 3. Absorbing, 4. Eliminating

2

What are enzymes?

an enzyme is a protein found in your body that speeds up the chemical process of digestion. Each organ has one or more enzymes that help digestion

3

What is the purpose of digestion?

The purpose of digestion is to break down food into small enough particles that the body can use the food.

4

What happens to food that cannot be broken down into small enough parts for the body to use?

It is eliminated as feces (Poop)

5

What is ingestion?

Ingestion is taking in food, through biting into your food or putting it into your mouth.

6

What are the four stages of digestion?

Digestion happens in the 1. mouth, 2. esophagus, 3. stomach, 4. small intestine

7

What is mechanical digestion?

Mechanical digestion happens in the mouth when you use your teeth to chew and your tongue to swallow.

8

What is a bolus?

A bolus is the small piece of food after it is chewed and swallowed

9

What covers a bolus?

Saliva covers the bolus.

10

What is the purpose of saliva?

Saliva helps the bolus slide down your esophagus and continue it's journey through the digestive tube.

11

What does saliva contain?

Saliva contains amylase which is an enzyme that starts the chemical digestive process.

12

Where does saliva come from

Saliva comes from your salivary glands in your mouth.

13

What does chemical digestion do?

Chemical digestion breaks down the complex carbohydrates from your food into simple carbohydrates that your body can use.

14

How much saliva do you produce a day?

You produce about 1 liter of saliva a day!! grossnessss

15

What is the pharynx?

The pharynx is where the airway and digestive system meet at the back of your throat. It is the first part of the esophagus.

16

What is the epiglottis?

The epiglottis is the flap of skin that covers the airway tube so food doesn't go down there.

17

When you choke on food what has happened?

When you choke on food, the epiglottis has opened by accident and food has gone down the wrong way.

18

What is peristalsis?

Peristalsis is the process of the esophagus muscle pushing the food through the esophagus

19

What is inside your stomach to help with digestion?

Inside your stomach is gastric juice, which is made of hydrochloric acid, mucus, and enzymes.

20

Where does gastric juice come from?

Gastric juice is secreted by the stomach lining.

21

If gastric juice is acidic, what protects your stomach?

Mucus lines your stomach to protect it from acid.

22

What is the purpose of your gastric juice being acidic?

Pepsin, the enzyme in your stomach, needs an acidic environment in order to work properly.

23

What is chyme?

Chyme is the bolus (food chunk covered in saliva) that has been mushed around in the gastric juice, so now is a liquid.

24

How long is the process of bolus to chyme?

It takes two to six hours to break down your food into chyme.

25

What is a sphincter?

Sphincters are found throughout your body. They are round muscles that allow materials to move through them when open, but close to prevent movement.

26

How many sphincters does your stomach have?

Your stomach has two sphincters One to allow bolus in, and one to allow chyme out into your intestines.

27

What happens when you throw up or have heartburn

When you puke or have heart burn the sphincter at the opening of your stomach has opened in the reverse direction.

28

Why does puke burn your throat?

Puke/Vomit burns your throat because of the hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice.

29

What is the duodenum?

The duodenum is the first meter of the small intestine.

30

How long is the small intestine?

The small intestine is about 6 meters long

31

When is the second stage of digestion complete?

The second stage of digestion is complete when the food leaves the duodenum.

32

What does the first 30 cm of the duodenum have?

The first 30 cm of the duodenum has duct or tubes that connect to other organs.

33

What three organs connect to the duodenum?

The pancreas, liver, and gall bladder connect to the duodenum.

34

What does the pancreas do?

The pancreas produces digestive enzymes that pass into the small intestine.

35

What does the liver do?

The liver produces bile.

36

Where is bile stored?

Bile is stored in the gall bladder.

37

What is the function of bile?

Bile breaks down globs of fat into smaller droplets, like how dish soap breaks up the grease on pots/pans. The bile helps the pancreatic enzymes break fat even smaller.

38

What is the purpose of the remaining 5 meters of small intestine?

Absorption of nutrients happens in the last 5 meters of the small intestine.

39

What helps to increase the rate of absorption of nutrients?

Villi (villus) cover the small intestine.

40

What are villi?

Villi are structures which cover the small intestines, they are folds that increase the total surface area so there is more space to take in nutrients.

41

How big is the surface are of the small intestine?

The surface area, because of vili is similar to the size of a tennis court. 250 meters squared.

42

How long does it take for food to pass through the small intestines?

It takes 5-6 hours for food to pass through the small intestines

43

What is the automatic process that pushes food through the small intestines?

Peristalsis moves the food through the intestines

44

What is the main purpose of the large intestine?

The large intestine takes the undigested material from the small intestine, reabsorb water and some minerals.

45

How big is the large intestine?

The large intestine is 5 cm wide, and it is 1.5 meters long.

46

How long does it take for the undigested material to pass through the large intestine?

It takes 12-24 hours to pass through the large intestine.

47

How much water has been reabsorbed by the time you poop?

90% of water has been reabsorbed as it passes through the large intestine.

48

What is the role of bacteria in digestion?

Bacteria helps with the breakdown and absorption of food.

49

How is Vitamin K made?

Bacteria in the large intestine use undigested material to create Vitamin K

50

What is Vitamin K for?

Vitamin K helps your blood to clot.

51

Why do babies need a Vitamin K shot?

When they are born, babies do not have Vitamin K yet, so their blood will not clot. Doctors give babies the shot to help them until they can make their own.

52

What is salmonella?

Salmonella is a bad bacteria that causes food poisoning.

53

What is elimination?

Elimination is when undigested materials leaves the body.

54

What is feces?

Feces is poop

55

How long does the whole process of digestion take?

It takes 20-30 hours from start to finish to digest food.

56

What does the excretory system do?

Removes waste (liquid or gas) from your body.

57

The excretory system removes liquid how?

Liquid is removed through the urinary tract.

58

What are the organs of the urinary tract?

Two kidneys, two tubes carrying liquid called the ureters, the bladder and the urethra.

59

What do the kidneys do?

The kidneys filter blood and remove wastes.

60

What happens once the blood is filtered?

as the blood is filtered, urine is formed

61

Where is urine stored?

Urine is stored in the bladder.

62

From where does urine leave the body?

Urine leaves the body via the urethra

63

What is obesity?

Obesity is an excess (too much) of body fat

64

How do people become obese?

Obesity is caused by people eating more food than their body requires.

65

What health problems does obesity create?

Obesity creates increased risk of diabetes, heart disease, stroke and asthma

66

What is an eating disorder?

An eating disorder is when a person does not get enough nutrients to be healthy

67

What is anorexia nervosa?

Anorexia nervosa is when a person severely restricts their food intake.

68

What health problems can Anorexia Nervosa cause?

Anorexia nervosa can cause damage to internal organs and weakening of bones.

69

What is bulimia nervosa?

Bulimia nervosa is when a person eats large amounts of food and then takes laxatives or vomits to get rid of the food before it is digested.

70

What health problems can bulimia nervosa cause?

Bulimia nervosa can irritate stomach and intestines, and create tooth decay from the acid in vomit

71

What is the rectum?

The rectum is the last bit of your large intestine

72

What is your anus?

The anus is the sphincter that releases the feces (poop) into the toilet

73

What is A?

Ingesting

74

What is B?

Digesting

75

What is C?

Absorbing

76

What is D?

Eliminating

77

What is A?

Salivary glands

78

What is B?

tongue

79

What is C?

Esophagus

80

What is D?

stomach

81

What is E?

pancreas

82

What is F?

Small intestine

83

What is G?

rectum

84

What is H?

liver

85

What is I?

gall bladder

86

What is J?

Large intestine

87

What is K?

Anus

88

What is A?

teeth

89

What is B?

Incisors

90

What is C?

tonsils

91

What is D?

Tongue, which is covered in projections

92

What is E?

Opening of a salivary gland duct

93

What is F?

Cuspids or canines

94

What is G?

bicuspids or premolars

95

What is H?

Molars