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Flashcards in 2. LTM (forgeting) Deck (17):
1

Reconsolidation

When memories are recalled they are recomsolidated making them more susceptible to changes again.

Memory is constructive- allows us to imagine the future, not a strict videotape of the past as it is not useful.

Allows us to update and renew our knowledge

Implications for PTSD treatments...

Pure consolidation is rare, most memories are combined with existing memory traces... Therefore reconsolidation.

2

Retrieval cues

Information utilised at the time of recall that affects memory performance

Improve memory performance is set up at encoding
Can be internal or external

3

Encoding specificity

Retrieval cues best when they are similar to the cues at encoding

Locus of effect is neither at encoding or retrieval, but an interaction of the two

4

Context dependent memory

Environmental context- internal and external
Ie room, time of day, alcohol, caffeine drugs etc

Smith and Vela: effect of context dependent memory can be abolished if....
- ptp focusses inwardly during encoding
- non contextual cues such as cued recall or recognition are used

EFFECT GREATEST ON FREE RECALL AS RECOGNITION IS A STRONG CUE BY ITSELF

5

Multiple retrieval cues

Are useful as they provide an alternate route to the information if one route is blocked

Improve recall :)

6

Visual retrieval cues

A camera worn by patients with anterograde amnesia recording time lapse images throughout the day to prompt memories later on .

7

Memory is constructive

Not a videotape of the past- this is just not very helpful, cannot change the past!

As a result it is fragile and open to distortions and false memory

Optimised efficiency

Utilise past experiences and memory to imagine the future

8

Amnesia memories of the future....

Found that amnesia patients struggle to imagine the future...
Either due to problems with a narrative or with EM


Found that when patients are given the details of a story they can tell it as long as it doesn't require accessing personal episodic memory.

Therefore EM is involved in imagining the future

9

Implicit memory

NOT declarative
NOT episodic
NOT reliant on MTL

Adaptive improvement of function via experience

Procedural memory, priming and conditioning use different neural structures to declarative memory- they are unaffected in amnesia patients.. They can still learn new skills. HM could improve IQ

10

Conditioning

Associative learning

Examples
- pin stab hand shake
- electric shock hand shake
- loud noise and colour (no fear response of amygdala damaged)

11

Procedural

Perceptuomotor (typing, athletic skill, musical skill)
Cognitive (chess, reading, language)

Initially efforts full, then automatic

'Expert amnesia' when something is so automatic you have no recollection of doing it
When it is explicitly thought about, performance is inhibited.. "Choking"

I've driving or expert typists do not have explicit memory of the keyboard

AMNESIC PATIENTS CAN DO THIS JUST FINE

12

Procedural memory and amnesia

Learning of strict procedures can aid activities in every day life.

13

Priming

Quick and effortless

Lexical decision- is nurse a word? Is hidbj a word?
Fragment completion
Word stem completion
Conceptual fluency

14

Repetition priming

Encountering a stimulus more than once can speed up and facilitate a response to it

Intact in amnesia patients

15

Perceptual priming

Form of repetition priming

Visual or auditory similarity between prime and target (ie completion of word fragments)

16

Semantic/ conceptual priming

Processing of meaning is facilitated

17

Consolidation

Synaptic- changes in synapses
Systemic- gradual independence from the hippocampus

Multiple trace theory

Recent memories show hpc activation, older memories show more neocortex activation


"Recent memories are clear but fragile, older memories are faded but robust"

Memories during consolidation are susceptible to change.
Retrograde amnesia is temporally graded (Semitic knowledge not had the chance to be consolidated and become independent from hpc is lost)