9. Speech Production Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 9. Speech Production Deck (22):
1

Strategies for fluent speech

Preformulation: using phrases produced before (sports commentators)

Underspecification: using simplified speech patterns

Repetition: cued by other words

2

Freudian slips

Wrongs things said are as a result of repressed thoughts

Doesn't always make sense
Research suggests errors come from the inner workings of language

3

Semantic substitution

Ie tennis bat.

Correct word is replaced by one with similar meaning

4

Word exchange error

Swapping word order in a sentence
Ie letting the house out of the cat

Suggests that sentences are not planned word by word

5

Morpheme exchange errors

Inflections attached to the wrong words

Eg I randomed some samply

6

Spoonerisms

When the start of a word is swapped

Eg par cark

7

Classification of speech errors

Substitution
Exchange
Additions

May occur at word level or morpheme or phoneme level

8

What causes errors

Misapplication of rules for combining one type of unit or another

Occurs writhing levels so exchange word for word or phoneme for phoneme

A wrong unit is activated and out competes the correct unit, is anticipation errors

9

Speech disfluencies

False starts
Fillers (umm err)
Correction of errors

10

Stuttering

Involuntary repetition of sound or word
OR
involuntary silence

Huge social and mental implications for the individuals life

11

WEAVER model of speech production

Word-form Encoding by Activation and VERification

Serial process
Each process must be complete before the next one starts

1. Conceptual (semantic level)

2. Lemma (grammatical and syntactic properties) represents a specific meaning but with no sounds attached to it

3. Lexeme (basic spoken word forms, morphemes and phonemic segments) concrete phonological form of the word


Tip of the tongue is activation up to the lemma but not the lexeme

12

Spreading activation theory

Speech planning occurs at the same time at all 4 levels

Semantic- meaning of what is to be said

Syntactic- grammatical structure

Morphological- basic units of meaning or word forms in the planned sentence

Phonological- phonemes or basic units of sound in a sentence


Errors occur when an incorrect item is more activated than a correct item in the same level

Parallel activation leads to spoonerisms and anticipation error

13

WEAVER comparison points

Serial (conceptual > lemma> lexeme)

Not interactive- one level must finish before the next

Stages are discrete l

14

Spreading activation theory

Parallel

Interactive processing

Different types of info can be processed together

15

Prospects cues

Rhythm, stress, intonation

16

Discourse makers

Words that don't directly contribute to the content but clarify intentions ( well, anyway, oh)

17

Common ground in communication

Reduced error rate in construction when communication was freely allowed

18

Planning speech
Initial design model

Initial plan takes into account listeners common ground

19

Planning speech
Monitoring and adjustment model

Plans speech without considering listeners common ground
Then correct and monitor plans to adjust for common ground

USE THIS MOST OF THE TIME

20

Establishing common ground
Shared responsibility



Speaker expects the listener to voice concerns

TYPICALLY RELY ON THIS


21

Establishing common ground
Cognitive overload

Speaker tries to keep track of both sets of knowledge

Requires excess cognitive processing!

22

Why are tongue twisters trickey

Similar sounds have overlapping brain regions that can get confused.