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Flashcards in 10. Language And Emotion Deck (18):

Basic emotion approach

Emotions are views as universal biological states

Innate neurological circuits
Expressed as clear facial expressions
Everyone is born with 5-6 categories


Emotion paradox

Some studies have found that not all emotion categories look, feel or have the same neurophysiological signature

Facial expressions viewed in isolation can be ambihuous

Facial info is important but not sufficient for emotion perception


Emotions as nominal categories

They are man made categories that are imposed on us

Part of our conceptual knowledge (conceptual knowledge depends on language)


Autism and emotion

Struggle to recognise emotions as they do not have the language capability to assign these man made categories from conceptual knowledge


Language as context hypothesis

Looking at cartoon emotions, accuracy of identification improves when a list of labels are provided when compared to fee recall.

Suggests that emotion words constrain perceptual choices

Emotion words cause a shift in the was faces are seen.... Similar to lexical identification shift. Provide context of emotion and it is recognised sooner


Semantic satiation

When a word is repeated many times it loses its meaning


Semantic satiation and emotion cues

Effect of semantic satiation should increase the identification time between the repeated word and emotion as there is less meaning assigned to it.

If language is not involved in emotion then the repetition effect should have no effect on assigning a category to an emotion


Processing emotion words

Emotion words are processed more in the right hemisphere

L hemi strike patients have aphasia but can still swear. Also show an advantage for processing of emotional words

Basal ganglia may be involved which implicated Tourette's and Parkinson's and explains expletive language

R hemi stroke patient could speak sentences but sound not sweat, sing or pray

In normal patients. If an emotional word is presented in the LVF, is benefits from being processed in the R hemi


Electrical response to emotional words

Earlier ERPs when the words were negative compared to neutral

Emotional words have enhanced response at P200-300

Words with learned emotional significance have enhanced processing


Reason for enhanced processing and recall of emotional words

Evolutionary response- emotional words may indicate danger so much be processed fast!

Attention grabbing- demonstrated by early enhanced cortical response


Emotional recall

Enhanced recall of emotional compared to neutral words


Emotional stroop

Delayed identification of the colour of emotional compared to neutral words because the emotion word jumps out to be processed first then has to be blocked.

Effect only found for NEGATIVE words


Taboo stroop

Same as emotional stroop, but negative words replaced with taboo words

Similar slowing effects

Very replicable


Bilingual taboo stroop

Interference for negative and taboo words was recorded for both English and foreign people

Amount of interference was equal in native and non native language

Same threat response

Higher skin conductance recorded ONLY in the native speakers (increased emotional arousal in natives)

Possibly linked to social learning and personal experience?


Emotional prosody

Refers to the patterns of stress and intonation in language
Used to communicate emotional state

Voice can betray our feelings as it is affected by physiological parameters which change depending on emotional state

Eg sarcasm (?frontal lobe)

"It's not what you said it's how you said it"


When does emotion prosody modulate semantic processing

ERP study

N400 is a negative peak at around 400ms after negative word

This peak is greater when prosody is incongruous


Prosody and sex differences

Women found to be more accurate when recognising emotions from faces and voices

Women find it more difficult to ignore prosody even when it is not relevant


Context effects

Emotions are not expressed as fixed patters on facial expressions
Language helps this become less ambiguous