6. Forgetting Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 6. Forgetting Deck (29):
1

Seven sins acronym

The
Absolute
Best
Memory
System
Brings
Problems

2

Transience (forgetting)

Due to time or interference

Describes the levelling off of the forgetting curve at long delays, beyond this memories appear impervious to further forgetting

3

Permastore

Bahrick

Permanent memory store, things must be transferred here within 2 years

For example forgetting a foreign language stops after about 2 years, what you remember then you will always remember

Similar to consolidation

4

Forgetting curve

Steep initially- maybe due to weakened memories during consolidation??

Eventually levels off... Permastore


5

Josts law

If 2 memories are equal strength but A is older than B... The oldest will become stronger and more robust in a given time frame

This is because the slope is much less steep for A in a given time frame so there is less forgetting that can occur

6

Half life

Half life of a memory trace reflects the strength of initial learning

Greater half life = stronger encoding and less prone to interference

7

Accelerated forgetting

Patients with temporal, lobe epilepsy show increased long term forgetting and a greater rate of forgetting

8

Decay

Loss of availability rather than accessibility

The wasting effects of time, gradual weakening of memories

Decay when they are not used
- time based resource sharing model... Info decays until we can refresh it again through rehearsal or attention

Particularly important in WM where memories must be kept active

DIFFICULT TO ISOLATE FROM INTERFERENCE

9

Criticism of decay theory

McGeoch

Items not recalled, can be recalled later

Forgetting is determined by number or density of events during retention

Forgetting is higher after waking than sleep

10

Retroactive interference

New memory trace interferes with an older memory trace

Reduces availability of the old trace rather than pushing it out- competition at retrieval

Useful for updating knowledge!

11

Proactive interference

An old memory interferes with a new memory
(Eg calling new be by old bf's name)

12

Two factor interference theory

1. Unlearning = earlier representations are weakened
2. Response competition= earlier representations remain but there is competition at retrieval

13

Increasing proactive interference

Similar learning experiences (shared cue)

If there are multiple targets for 1 cue there are multiple route that could be taken and therefore increases the risk of error.. Following the wrong path

14

Interference and amnesia

Amnesia patients given memory task then either wakeful resting or a distracting task


Wakeful resting aided recall
Distractor meant they remembered nothing- very susceptible to retroactive interference

15

Decay and interference

Hpc is resistant to interference, good at distinct pattern remembering and keeping events separate. More likely to suffer from decay.

Neocortex is not good at pattern separation so more likely to suffer from interference

Amnesic patients lack hpc, so they are unable to store events as separate, so suffer more from interference

16

Recollection and interference

Recollection is driven by the hpc so is resistant to interference and suffers from decay

Hpc supports episodic memory which binds memories in spatial-temporal context so they are distinct events

17

Familiarity and interference

Non hpc areas so more likely to suffer from interference as cannot keep memories distinct

18

Cues improve...

Accessibility

19

Recognition vs recall

Recognition is generally superior to recall

Due to presence of retrieval cues
Can accurately respond on basis of familiarity rather than knowing required for free recall

20

Blocking

Tip of the tongue phenomena
20% young adults
Occurs more with increased frustration
Reduced by recognition
Due to limited speech activation?

21

Missattribution

Source memory confusion

Consequence for eyewitness etc

Remembering something that they didn't really experience

22

Suggestibility

Memory is liable to distortion and error as a result of suggestion

Eg presenting false photos and asked for description of the memory

Similar to Missattribution- only suggestibility MUST have the presence of suggestion

23

Bias

Schemes and long term knowledge of the world can influence and district memory

Constructive nature of memory

Memory has a positivity bias- likely to remember more positive events

24

Confabulation

Clinically significant false statements that are made without the intention to deceive

Clinical feature of Korsakoffs amnesia

Problem ends with memory and control mean that patients construct memories to replace those that are missing to make sense of the world

Qualities very similar to real memory

25

Persistence

Cannot forget memories

Hyperthymestic syndrome= unusual, superior autobiographical memory

26

Why forgetting is useful

Update knowledge
Forget horrible events
Prevents mental clutter to allow focus on relevant stimuli
Free up resources
Exact record of the past is useless

27

Efficiency of memory

Evolved to be of optimum use

Huge capacity
Ability to think flexibly
Utilise and manipulate knowledge for new situations


Costs for memory are fallibility

28

Seven sins of memory

Transience
Absent mindedness*
Blocking*
Miss attribution*
Suggestibility
Bias
Persistence

* forgetting

29

Rate of forgetting

Fast in amnesics
Slow in AM
Slow in implicit memory