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Flashcards in 7. Reading Deck (25):
1

Reading to children 6-7 times per week

12 months advanced in their reading skills

2

1970 British cohort study

Found that children who read regularly for pleasure had greater intellectual progress in literacy and mathematics

Followed up age 42, still have significantly better vocab test

3

Word identification

Automatic

Not every word is fixated

Series of fixations and saccades

Some evidence that it is unavoidable (stroop effect- suggests hat word meaning is extracted even when people try to not process it)

Studied via eye movements and tracking and response times as it is automatic it cannot be studies using introspective reports

4

Eye movements in reading

Saccades 25/60 ms

Fixations 200-250ms (only 4-5 letters around the fixation point are seen with 100% acuity)

Information is taken in during fixations, less in saccades

5

EZ reader model

1) familiarity check : do I know it? Depends of frequency. Completion when eye movement moves to next word

2) lexical access : identify the orthographic pattern and semantics- recognise the word.

Faster for common and predictable words due to organisation of mental lexicon

CRUCIAL ASSUMPTION
next eye movement is programmed after PARTIAL processing of the current word
We can attend to two words at the same time... It works in a SERIAL fashion

6

Factors altering difficulty of word recognition...

Frequency- high frequency words are processed faster

Length- short words processed faster

Regularity- regular words are processed faster (closer graphaeme-phoneme conversion)

7

Models of reading aloud

DRC- dual route cascaded model

Connectionist Model

8

What must a good reading aloud model do?

Explain :
Regular vs irregular words
New words and non words
Dyslexia
All the factors that make it easier and harder
It's development in children

9

Dual route cascaded model
Coltheart et al 2001

Both silent and reading aloud, accounts for reading all kinds of words, explains dyslexia.

2 routes from print to sound:
INDIRECT (non lexical) - serial conversion of letter to sounds one at a time. Grahame- phoneme conversion

DIRECT (lexical) - parallel. Divided into 2 sub routes: one with just orthographic lexicon and the other also involving semantics

Cascaded as activation is passed on to the next level before the first is complete

The direct route may be used more when dealing with short familiar words because it is faster

10

Positive DRC evaluation points

Explains reading let to right
Explains dyslexia
Works for other languages

11

Negative evaluation of DRC model

No explanation for how it is acquired
Downplays phonological processing
Mechanism of how semantics affect the process is not clear

12

Connectionist (single route) model
Plaut et al 1996

Parallel

Activation of ORTHOGRAPHIC, SEMANTIC, PHONOLOGICAL codes
Feedback connections

No grapheme-phoneme conversion

13

Positive evaluation of connectionist model

Simulated word length effects etc
Explains some dyslexia
Assumes semantic importance in reading

14

Negative evaluation of connectionist model

Similar to DRC, does not explain how semantics are involved

Learning process doesn't correspond to how children learn to read (DRC doesn't even attempt to explain it )

Cannot explain findings that reading occurs in serial manner (this is explained by the DRC)

15

Surface dyslexia

Issues extracting meaning from visual form

Problems with irregular words

Phonetically correct spelling errors

Confuse homophones

Seem to read by grapheme-phoneme conversion rules (supported by the indirect DRC route)

16

Phonological dyslexia

No problems with word regularity if they have been previously learned

Problem with unfamiliar and non words

Can extract meaning from visual form, but can't use grapheme-phoneme conversion rules

17

Orthography

The written form of a language, ie. capitals and word breaks

Languages have different orthographic depths

18

Orthographic depth

How strong the grapheme-phoneme relationship is

19

Shallow orthographic depth

One to one GPC

20

Deep orthography

GPC is less clear
(Hebrew, vowel omitted in written form so is difficult to distinguish between words)

21

Effect of semantic priming

Theory is that because shallow orthographic language do not use the lexicon, semantic priming should make no difference to reading.
PRESENTATION > PRONUNCIATION > LEXICAL ACCESS

Whereas, because deep orthographic language have post lexical phonology.. Semantic priming would be beneficial and reduce RT as it improves access to the lexicon
PRESENTATION > LEXICAL ACCESS > PRONUNCIATION

22

Frost et al 1987
(Semantic priming) results

Priming has strongest effect in Hebrew (deep)
Smaller effect in English (quasi-regular)
No effect in serbocroatian (shallow)

SUPPORTS DRC MODEL as there are 2 routes to the lexicon- direct (post lexical) and indirect (pre lexical)

23

Pre lexical phonology

Shallow orthography
Phonology generated directly from print

24

Post lexical phonology

Deep orthography

Phonology derived from internal lexicon

25

Reading to children 3-5 times per week

6 months advanced on reading skills