20. Supplements Flashcards
What is a supplement?
A concentrated source of a vitamin, mineral or other substance with a nutritional or physiological effect, sold in dose form
In which states should we use supplements?
Why are supplements needed?
Reduced nutrient content due to soil depletion Pesticides High yielding crops Long distance transportation Processing/toxins Weakened digestion Stressful lifestyles
Which are the best forms to take as supplements?
Pros and cons of liquids as supplements?
Pros and cons of powders as supplements?
Good for larger doses
Not good for ingredients that attract moisture
Pros and cons of capsules as supplements?
Fewer excipients than tablets
Not efficient in large doses
Pros and cons of tablets as supplements?
Easy to produce in large quantities
More excipients (try to avoid)
What are enteric formulations?
Used to ensure tablets survive stomach acid
Don’t release contents until SI
What sort of supplement is good in enteric form?
What are spore formulations good for?
survive stomach and release contents into SI
What do we need to be mindful of with chewable formulation?
Coated to make more palatable
What do we need to be mindful of with slow-release formulation?
Cheaper forms contain hydrogenated fats to hold tablets together longer
What are the benefits of liposomal supplements?
Increased oral uptake in mouth
Increased uptake in target cells
Easier to take than large tablets
Examples of excipients in supplements
Stabilising agents Fillers Binding agents Emulsifiers Flavours Colours Sweeteners Preservatives
Vitamins/minerals absorbed in duodenum
Vitamins/minerals absorbed in jejunum
Vitamins/minerals absorbed in ileum
How best to take water soluble vitamins?
Why should you avoid taking B vits in the evening?
Used for energy so may trigger or exacerbate insomnia
How best to take fat soluble vitamins and CoQ10?
With food containing fat
How best to take EFAs?
Avoid high levels of opposing fat though
How best to take amino acids?
With a carb food/drink
On an empty stomach
When best to have a protein shake
Any time of day
How best to take minerals
adequate stomach acid is needed for digestion
When is it best to take Ca or Mg?
In evening to aid restful sleep
When is it best to take Zn?
On empty stomach before bed
What factors should be considered when working out dosage?
Age of patient Size of patient State of health Deficiency or insufficiency? Digestive capability Lab test results Safe therapeutic range
What is the elemental amount of a mineral?
The amount available for absorption after it’s been freed from its carrier molecule
What are naturally sourced supplement ingredients?
Nutrients from vegetable, animal or mineral sources
What are synthetic supplement ingredients?
Manufactured with identical molecular structure to the same natural nutrients
What are food cultured supplement ingredients?
Nutrients (natural or synthetic) are added to yeast/algae suspensions where they concentrate within cells
What are the benefits of food cultured supplements?
Makes the nutrient more bioavailable
What are food based supplement ingredients?
Made by enzymatically reacting synthetic and natural vitamins with extracts containing vegetable proteins
Why aren’t food based supplements common?
Low nutrient potency
Fluctuating nutrient levels
Limited shelf life
Why is a natural form of vit C better for building collagen?
Stays in the body longer
Why is a synthetic form of vit C better for detoxification?
Rapidly excreted from body and will take a large amount of free radicals with it
When may food based supplements not be enough to supply optimal dosage?
Poor dietary habits
Chronic health conditions
What do naturopaths try to avoid in supplements?
Preservatives Colours Fillers Binding agents GMO Irradiated products
Common organic mineral carriers
Citrate Fumarate Malate Ascorbate Glycinate Picolinate
Common inorganic mineral carriers
Oxide Sulphate Chloride Nitrate Carbonate
Why are citrates good?
Requires less stomach acid to break bonds and free the mineral for absorption
Why are picolinates good?
What is a chelator?
Substance that binds tightly to mineral atoms