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Flashcards in 2009 final Deck (41)
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1
Q

What is a characteristic of the parotid glands?

A

They open opposite to the 2nd molar teeth

2
Q

Tall columnar epithelial cells with dense lymphoid stroma

A

Warthin’s

3
Q

A mass in the parotid with uniform cells and eosinophilic cytoplasm

A

Oncocytoma

4
Q

If a patient with unilateral cervical lymph node enlargement with ulcer below tongue. What must be excluded first?

A

Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue

5
Q

Tumor in the salivary glands with biphasic pattern

A

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma

6
Q

What is the difference between primary secretion of saliva gland and the modified secretion?

A

Tonicity

7
Q

If a person swallowed repeatedly every 1-2 seconds. What will happen?

A

Esophagus will only contract after the last swallow

8
Q

What is secreted in response to high acidity in duodenum?

A

Secretin

9
Q

What is secreted by enterochromaffin like cells?

A

Histamine

10
Q

What is the characteristic of barrett esophagus?

A

Goblet cells + intestinal metaplasia

11
Q

What is seen in a patient with H-pylori gastritis?

A

Lymphoid aggregates with plasma cells

12
Q

A patient went to south east asia and came back with bloody diarrhea

A

Flask-sharp ulcers

13
Q

A 75-year-old patient with hematemesis, exophytic mass was present in the antrum

A

Adenocarcinoma

14
Q

A patient with spindle cell tumor with positive C-kit

A

Stromal tumor

15
Q

A patient with regurgitation and dysphagia

A

Achalasia

16
Q

What is bound to the bore area of the liver?

A

Coronary ligament

17
Q

Upon continuous toxic exposure, stellate cells will secrete

A

Collagen

18
Q

What is conjugated in hepatocytes to glucoronic acid?

A

Bilirubin

19
Q

What is excluded out of the gallbladder?

A

NaCl

20
Q

What causes contraction of gallbladder?

A

CCK

21
Q

What causes relaxation of the sphincter of oddi?

A

VIP

22
Q

A patient with liver cells showing ground glass appearance

A

HBV

23
Q

A patient with Mallory body hyalination

A

Alcoholic hepatitis

24
Q

A middle-aged female with anti-SMA + ANA

A

Plasma cell infiltrate

25
Q

A patient with steroids developed a solitary mass in liver

A

Liver cell adenoma

26
Q

What usually occurs at the porta hepatis?

A

Rt + Lt hepatic duct form the common hepatic duct

27
Q

What is the origin of smooth muscles in the GIT?

A

Splanchic mesoderm

28
Q

What is the mechanism of cimetidine?

A

Inhibit metabolism of other drugs

29
Q

What will happen if you cut the autonomic nerves out of the snall intestine for contraction?

A

It will not be affected

30
Q

Amylase is inactivated in the stomach at pH 4, how does digestion of the starch continue there?

A

Salivary amylase in the core of the food, as pH will take longer time to inactivate that

31
Q

When will clinical manifestation of S. Typhi start?

A

After ileal penetration

32
Q

What causes Vitamin B-12 deficiency?

A

Antibodies to intrinsic factors

33
Q

A 19-year-old female patient with fouly smell diarrhea, investigations showed high tTG antibodies. What is the best to treat?

A

Gluten free diet

34
Q

In the previous question, what is the best way to diagnosis?

A

Small bowel biopsy

35
Q

What is antagonist for muscarinic receptors?

A

Hyoscine

36
Q

What is a dopamine receptor antagonist?

A

Metoclopramide

37
Q

What is the mechanism of action of lactulose?

A

Retaining fluid in the bowel by osmosis

38
Q

What is used as a landmark for the base of the appendix?

A

Ileal orifice

39
Q

In which part does reverse peristalsis occur?

A

Colon

40
Q

What is a characteristic of HNPCC?

A

Mutations in mismatch repair genes

41
Q

Which measures the antion transporter?

A

Bilirubin