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Flashcards in 2017 final Deck (41)
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1
Q
A weakness in which of the following muscles leads to pharyngeal?
A. Superior pharyngeal constrictor
B. Middle pharyngeal constrictor
C. Cricopharyngeus
D. Thyropharyngeus
A

C. Cricopharyngeus

2
Q

Which of the following best describes the surface landmarks of the abdomen?
(List the corrections for each statement)
A- The xiphoid process lies at level T12
B- The inter tubercular line lies at L2
C- The trans pyloric plane lies at L2
D- The trans pyloric plane lies at the mid distance between the xiphoid process and pubic symphysis
E- The midclavicular line crosses the pubic tubercle

A
A- [T9]
B- [L5]
C- L1
D- between jugular notch and pubic symphysis
E- intertubercle
3
Q

Which of the following is true about hepatitis C infection?
A. Sexually transmitted
B. Most cases progress to chronic infection
C. Most lead to acute infection
D. Vertically transmitted
E. Aerosol transmission

A

B. Most cases progress to chronic infection

4
Q

A patient suffers from right hypochondriac pain due to enlargement of the liver. Which nerve is responsible for this pain?

A. ilioinguinal
B. Right vagus
C. Right phrenic
D. Subcostal
E. Thoracodorsal
A

D. Subcostal

5
Q

H1 antagonist that causes motion sickness
A- cyclizine
B- hyoscine (scopolamine)

A

A- cyclizine

6
Q
A 9-yr old girl presented with skin purpura, oliguria, & bloody diarrhoea for 1 week, what's
the cause?
A. contaminated water
B. undercooked chicken
C. undercooked burger
D. undercooked rice
A

C. undercooked burger

7
Q

How do you diagnose enteric fever?
A. plasma PCR
B. blood culture

A

A. plasma PCR

8
Q
What shows more toxicity in children than adults?
A. acetaminophen
B. isoniazid
C. halothane
D. Salicylate
A

D. Salicylate

9
Q
What is the place for Norovirus outbreaks?
A. Schools
B. Nursing homes
C. Parks
D. Restaurants
A

D. Restaurants

10
Q

What is the type of vaccine for Rotavirus?

A

A. live attenuated

11
Q

What drug causes black tongue & stool?

A

A. Bismuth subsalicylate

12
Q
  1. A physician got a needle stick injury from a patient with acute HBV. On testing, the doctor was negative for HBV. What was given to the physician?
A

A. high titer antibodies

13
Q
What mediates the damage in celiac disease?
A- Th2
B- antibody mediated damage
C- Th1 cytokines
D- Cytotoxic antibodies
A

C- Th1 cytokines

14
Q

What increases both the duration and amplitude of the stomach AP?

A. Adrenaline
B. Sympathetic
C. Acetylcholine
D. Secretin

A

C. Acetylcholine

15
Q
What is the bacteria mostly associated with diarrhea in infants and children less than 1?
A. C. Jejuni
B. EPEC
C. C. Botulinum
D. C. Perfringens
A

B. EPEC

16
Q

What accurately describes migrating myoelectric complex MMC?
A. it happens during digestive period
B. it stops after vagotomy
C. It needs an intact enteric nervous system

A

C. It needs an intact enteric nervous system

17
Q

Which of the following is important for the enterocyte primary function?
A. apical microvilli
B. lacteals

A

A. apical microvilli

18
Q
18. What is the arterial supply to the anal canal?
A- inferior vesical
B- superior vesical
C- inferior rectal
D- median sacral
A

C- inferior rectal

19
Q

What oncogene can be identified by fecal DNA testing to detect early colorectal cancer?

A

KRAS

20
Q

What carries taste sensation from the anterior of the tongue?

A

A. Chorda tympani

21
Q
Which of the following causes receptive relaxation?
A. Somatostatin
B. Gastrin
C. Norepinephrine
D. VIP
A

D. VIP

22
Q

What infection is the most common to cause chronic hepatitis?

A

A. HCV

23
Q

Which of the following is used to treat chronic active HCV hepatitis?

A

A. Protease inhibitors

24
Q

What is correct about microbiome?
A. Saturated fatty acids are harmful
B. Excessive protein intake is harmful
C. Probiotics are harmful

A

B. Excessive protein intake is harmful

25
Q
  1. What is responsible for the conversion of trypsinogen to its active form trypsin?
A

A. Brush border enterokinases

26
Q

What is the best site to biopsy for diagnosing H. pylori gastritis?

A

A. Antrum

27
Q
  1. HepPar1 immunostain is used for the detection of which of the following conditions?
A

A. Hepatocellular carcinoma

28
Q

Which of the following best describes a difference between the small and large intestines?
A. Unlike the small intestines, the large intestine lymphatic vessels appear in muscularis
mucosae and form a plexus in the submucosa
B. Unlike the large intestines, the small intestine lymphatic vessels appear in muscularis
mucosae and form a plexus in the submucosa

A

A. Unlike the small intestines, the large intestine lymphatic vessels appear in muscularis

29
Q

What causes malnutrition in irritable bowel syndrome?
A. Dietary restrictions
B. Inflammatory cytokines induced anorexia
C. Altered microbiome

A

B. Inflammatory cytokines induced anorexia

30
Q

What is the extent of a gastric tumor invasion in a patient with supraclavicular lymph nodes
enlargement?

A. Mucosa
B. Submucosa
C. Serosa
D. Pancreas
E. Omentum
A

E. Omentum

31
Q

Who should receive a high titer hepatitis B specific immune globulin?

A

A. Those exposed to needle stick injuries

32
Q

What test should be ordered if Perl’s blue pigmentation of Kupffer cells was positive?
A. Anti-mitochondrial Abs
B. Transferrin saturation
C. Total bilirubin

A

B. Transferrin saturation

33
Q
Which of the following segments has the lowest motility?
A. Transverse colon
B. Upper rectum
C. Lower rectum
D. Descending colon
A

C. Lower rectum

34
Q
34. A specimen taken from the roof of the mouth of a 50 year old patient showed a tumor that was biphasic, composed of ductal and myoepithelial cells, and a tubular, cribriform and solid architecture. What is the most probable diagnosis?
A. Basal cell carcinoma
B. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma
C. Actinic cell carcinoma
D. Adenoid cystic carcinoma
A

D. Adenoid cystic carcinoma

35
Q
35. What is located superior to Traube’s space?
A. Lower border of left lung
B. Left costal margin
C. Liver
D. Spleen
A

A. Lower border of left lung

36
Q

What is true about migrating myoelectric complexes (MMC)?
A. Occurs during eating
B. Occurs only in small intestine
C. Generated by sympathetic nervous system
D. Enteric nervous system plays an important role in its propagation

A

D. Enteric nervous system plays an important role in its propagation

37
Q

What structures have extensive basal plasma membrane infoldings?

A

A. Striate ducts (intra lobular ducts)

38
Q

What determines the rate of production of bile acids?

A

A. Concentration of secondary bile acids in portal circulation

39
Q

What best describes the active phase of Crohn’s disease?
A. Increased diet induced thermogenesis
B. Reduced/Increased (we don’t remember which) lipolysis
C. Reduced resting BMR

A

-

40
Q

Which of the following can be seen in primary biliary cirrhosis?

A

A. Lymphocytic destruction of bile ductules

41
Q
A patient presented with difficulty and pain upon swallowing, and on endoscopy and biopsy there were sharp well demarcated ulcers in the upper and middle thirds of the esophagus. The cells showed a ground glass appearance. What is the diagnosis?
A. CMV esophagitis
B. Herpetic esophagitis
C. Candida esophagitis
D. Allergic esophagitis
E. Barrett’s esophagus
A

B. Herpetic esophagitis