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[OS 216] Immuno E2 > 2014 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 2014 Deck (99)
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1

Histamine can be found in different compartments in the human body, and are released in varying conditions. Which of the following is INCORRECT with regards to histamine?
A. Histamine can be released by allergens and physico-chemical insults
B. Histamine has not been linked with neurotransmission in the brain
C. Enterochromaffin-like cells in the stomach release histamine to activate mucosa cells
D. Histamine is found in high concentrations at sites of potential injury

B

2

The triple response of Lewis classically describes the effect if intradermal injection of histamine. Which of the following is not consistent with the triple response?
A. Localized red spot
B. Swelling or production of edema
C. Bright red halo
D. Patchy orange induration

D

3

Which of the following is INCORRECT with regards to the pharmacodynamics effect of anti-histamine?
A. Decrease extrapyramidal signs for acute dystonia associated with antipsychotics
B. Sedative effect is associated with second generation H1 blockers
C. Urinary retention and blurring of vision may be seen with ethanolamine use
D. Cetirizine inhibits mast cell release of histamine and some other mediators of inflammation

B

4

Immunologic processes account for the most important pathophysiologic mechanism of histamine release. Which of the following is TRUE with regards to the storage and release of histamine?
A. Involves neutrophil histamine release
B. Cells sensitized by IgE antibodies attached to their surface membranes
C. Histamine is also a mediator in Type-II hypersensitivity reactions
D. Histamine decreases chemotaxis of monocytes and lymphocytes

B

5

Which of the following is FALSE with regards to the leukotrienes?
A. Leukotrienes are products of arachidonic acid metabolism through 5-Lipoxygenase pathway
B. Synthesized by airway inflammatory cells
C. Cys-Leukotrienes dominate during allergic constriction of the airway
D. Leukotrienes are only involved with increase airway mucosal secretion

D

6

The leukotriene which has the highest potency as a chemotactic agent for neutrophils
A. Leukotriene B4
B. Leukotriene C4
C. Leukotriene D4
D. Leukotriene E4

A

7

Leukotriene pathway inhibitors are clinically effective for asthma. Which of the following is FALSE with regards to the effects of leukotrienes in asthma?
A. The anti-inflammatory effects may be less than corticosteroids but nearly equal in reducing the frequency of exacerbations
B. Shown to reduce the asthmatic response to aspirin
C. Taken per orem
D. Zileuton is approved for children 6 years and above

D

8

Which of the following is FALSE with regards to the pharmacodynamics effects of leukotrienes?
A. Hypotension
B. Chemotaxis
C. Gastric acid production
D. Mucosal edema

C

9

Which of the following drugs / agents would reduce release of mediators from mast cells and basophils and produce brochodilation?
A. Prednisone
B. Isoproterenol
C. Montelukast
D. Antihistamines

D

10

Which of the following routes would probably be the best method to give epinephrine to a patient with anaphylactic shock?
A. Subcutaneous
B. Intramuscular
C. Intravenous
D. Sublingual

C

11

Which of the following regarding the use of adrenergic agents in allergic rhinitis is true?
A. Use with caution in patients with hypertension.
B. Topical decongestants are less prone to abuse.
C. Oral decongestants are more prone to produce rebound congestion.
D. They can be safely taken by patients who are on MAO inhibitors.

A

12

Which of the following adrenergic agents exerts direct action on the alpha 2 adrenergic receptors?
a. phenylephrine
b. pseudoephedrine
c. oxymetazoline
d. epinephrine

C

13

Which of the following agents used topically for nasal decongestion would more likely cause mucosal damage?
A. epinephrine
B. phenylephrine
C. ephedrine
D. xylometazoline

A

14

Which of the following decongestants releases stored catecholamines, has some direct effects on receptors, has good oral bioavailability and causes significant CNS stimulation?
A. Phenylephrine
B. Ephedrine
C. Oxymetazoline
D. Pseudoephedrine

B

15

True or False? The standard diluent for epinephrine is D5W.

F

16

True or False? Bicarbonates are compatible with epinephrine.

F

17

The following are considered to be glucocorticoids:
A. Testosterone
B. Aldosterone
C. Cortisol
D. Dehydroepiandosterone

C

18

The following are considered to be glucocorticoids:
A. Testosterone
B. Aldosterone
C. Cortisol
D. Dehydroepiandosterone

D

19

A patient with allergic rhinitis was assessed to require steroids. This drug should be given
A. Systemically by intravenous route
B. By intramuscular route
C. By oral route (e.g. prednisone)
D. Inhaled/intranasal

D

20

The following are expected effects of steroids except:
A. Decrease calcium absorption in the gut
B. Increase glucose uptake by muscles
C. Blocks the synthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes
D. Protein catabolism

B

21

The following practice decreases the likelihood of adverse effects with the use of glucocorticoids:
A. Give a higher dose at night than in the morning.
B. For contact dermatitis, steroids should be administered systematically for faster absorption.
C. Use at the highest doses for optimal effect.
D. Give prednisone rather than dexamethasone whenever possible.

D

22

The following adverse effect of glucocorticoids is attributed to its interaction and activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor:
A. Hyperglycemia or high blood sugar
B. Osteoporosis
C. Early bruising and thinning of the skin
D. Hypertension

D

23

The following are normal physiologic processes concerning steroid secretion which we attempt to mimic whenever exogenous steroids are given:
A. The peak of ACTH secretion is early in the morning at around 8 am
B. The peak of cortisol secretion is at 8 pm
C. Mineralocorticoid secretion peaks at 8 am.
D. Cortisol secretion is lowest at around midnight.

D

24

The only mineralocorticoid that has pharmacologic use:
A. Hydrocortisone
B. Prednisone
C. Fludrocortisone
D. Dexamethasone

C

25

The most important part of the allergic history
A, Family medical history
B. Past medical history
C. Environmental history
D. Review of systems

C

26

Which of the following patients most likely has an allergic condition?
A. A 60/M smoker with daily cough for 2 years.
B. A 6/M with cough and fever for 2 weeks.
C. A 16/M with cough every morning for 2 years.
D. A 6 month/M with cough after every breastfeeding for 2 months.

C

27

Facial characteristics of an allergic person include the following, except:
A. infraorbital swelling
B. nasal crease
C. malar rash
D. Denie-Morgan lines

A

28

The diagnosis of an allergic disease primarily relies on:
A. positive skin prick test
B. A high serum IgE level
C. A thorough history
D. A complete physical exam

C

29

The following can cause an allergic disease, except:
A. atopic dermatitis
B. irritant contact dermatitis
C. urticaria
D. angioedema

B

30

The following can cause an allergic disease, except;
A. soot
B. food
C. animal hair
D. antibiotics

A