2.1 Acute inflammation part 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2.1 Acute inflammation part 3 Deck (21):
1

What are the two means of destroying phagocytosed material?

Oxygen dependent and independent

2

What is the enzyme that converts Oxygen to superoxide?

NADPH oxidase

3

What is the enzyme that converts superoxide to H2O2?

Superoxide dismutase

4

What is the enzyme that converts H2O2 to HOCl?

myeloperoxidase

5

What is the most effective mechanism to kill phagocytosed material? What is involved with this?

-O2 dependent killing
-HOCl generated by the oxidative burst destroys phagocytosed microbes

6

What is the defect in chronic granulomatous disease? Inheritance pattern?

-XLR or AR deficiency in NADPH oxidase, causing a loss of oxygen dependent killing

7

What are the organisms that are catalase positive?

Cats Need PLACESS

Nocardia
Pseudomonas
Listeria
Aspergillus
Candida
E. Coli
Staph
Serratia

8

What are the obligate aerobes?

Nagging Pests Must Breathe

-Nocardia
-Pseudomonas cepacia
-Mycobacterium TB
-Bordetella

9

Why is it that pts with chronic granulomatous disease do not have trouble killing catalase negative bacteria?

H2O2 produced by bacteria can be converted to HOCl. (NADPH is sooner in the pathway)

10

What is the function of catalase?

H2O2 to H2O

11

What is the nitroblue tetrazolium test involved in diagnosing chronic granulomatous disease?

Turns blue if NADPH oxidase can convert O2 to O2-

(remains colorless if not)

12

What is the usual presentation of MPO deficiency?

-Asymptomatic but increased risk for candida infections
-NBT test normal

13

What is the defect in MPO deficiency? What are they at increased risk of developing? Result of the NBT test?

-Defective conversion of H2O2 to HOCl
-Increased risk for candidal infx
-NBT test is normal

14

What is the MOA of O2 independent killing?

occurs via enzymes present in leukocyte secondary granules (lysozyme and MBP)

15

What happens to the PMNs when the infection has resolved?

Undergo apoptosis within 24 hours of resolution

16

What is the key way macrophages kill stuff?

oxygen independent killing, particularly, lysozyme

17

What are the cytokines that macrophages give off if the infection has resolved?

IL-10 and TGF-beta

18

What are the cytokines that are given off by macrophages if the infection has NOT resolved? What are the two major results of this?

IL-8 to call in more PMNs
-Abscess
-Acute inflammation

19

What are the two major ANTI-inflammatory cytokines?

IL-10 and TGF-beta

20

What defines acute inflammation?

The PMN response of the immune system--NOT time

21

What is the major role of macrophages in inflammation?

"managers"--call in more PMNs or activate adaptive immunity via antigen presentation