2.2 Chronic Inflammation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2.2 Chronic Inflammation Deck (44):
1

What are the histological characteristics of plasmas cells?

Clock Face nucleus with nucleus that is push off to the side

2

What is the CD maker that is specific to macrophages?

CD14

3

What are the the two components of the T cell receptor complex?

CD3 and T cell Receptor

4

What are the histological characteristics of: PMNs?

multilobed nucleus (5+)

5

Hypersegmented PMNs are seen in what disease?

B12 deficiency

6

What are the histological characteristics of: monocytes?

Frosted glass appearance with a kidney shaped nucleus

7

What cytokine activates macrophages?

IFN-gamma

8

What are the histological characteristics of: Eosinophils

Bilobed nucleus, packed with large eosinophilic granules of uniform size

9

What are the components of the NAACP mnemonic for the causes of eosinophilia?

Neoplasia
Asthma
Allergic processes
CT disease
Parasites

10

What are the histological characteristics of: basophils?

Densely packed with basophilic granules containing histamine and leukotrienes

11

Basophilia is a hallmark of what hematological malignancy?

CML

12

What is the drug that prevents mast cell degranulation?

Cromolyn sodium

13

How is CD4+ T cell activation induced?

Extracellular antigen is presented via MHC II, and binding of B7 on APC to Cd28 on CD4 T cells provides 2nd signal

14

What is the second signal that is needed to activate CD4+ T cells, after/ during binding of MHC class II?

B7 on APCs binds to CD28 on CD4 T cells

15

What is the role of CD4 T cells?

Secrete cytokines to promote B cell or CD8 T cell activation

16

What is the function of Th1 cells? What are the cytokines that are secreted in this process?

Secrete IL-2 and IFN-gamma to encourage CD8 T cell proliferation

17

What is the function of Th2 cells, generally?

Promotes B cell activation

18

What are the three cytokines produced by the Th2 cells, and what is the function of each?

-IL-4 = (Class switching to IgG and IgE)
-IL-5 = (eosinophil chemotaxis and activation)
-IL-10 = (Inhibits Th1 phenotype)

19

What is the function of IL-4 secreted by Th2 cells?

Class switching to IgG and IgE

20

What are the 3 functions of IL-5 secreted by Th2 cells?

-Eosinophils chemotaxis and activation
-Maturation of B cell to plasma cells
-Class switching to IgA

21

What is the function of IL-10 secreted by Th2 cells?

Inhibits Th1 phenotype

22

What is the role of IFN-gamma secreted by Th1 cells?

-Macrophage and NK cell activator
-Increases MHC expression

23

What is the second signal for CD8+ T cell maturation, after MHC class I presentation of an antigen?

IL-2 from CD4+ T cells

24

How do CD8 T cells mediated cellular killing? (2)

-Secretion of perforins and granzyme induce apoptosis of the target cell
-Binding of FasL on Fas receptor on target cell induces apoptosis

25

What are the key intracellular mediators of cell death?

Caspases

26

What are the three ways in which caspases are activated?

-Mito release Cytochrome C
-Fas receptor activation
-CD8 T cells dump granzyme

27

What are the two antibodies that are expressed on pro B cells?

IgM and IgD

28

How does B cell activation occur? (2)

-Antigen binds IgM or IgD
-CD40 receptor binding by activated Th2 cell

29

Is granulomatous inflammation and acute or chronic type of inflammation?

Chronic

30

What is the KEY cell that defines a granuloma? What are these?

Epithelioid histiocyte (macrophages with abundant pink cytoplasm)

31

What comprises the rim of granulomas?

Giant cells and a rim of lymphocytes

32

What are the two major subtypes of granulomas?

Caseating and non caseating

33

What is the defining feature of caseating granulomas?

Lack central necrosis

34

Which IBD is characterized by noncaseating granulomas?

Crohn's disease

35

What is the histological hallmark of ulcerative colitis?

Crypt abscesses

36

Stellate granulomas are characteristic of what infectious disease?

Cat scratch disease

37

How can you differentiate between a necrotic and non-necrotic granulomas histologically?

Non-necrotic will retain their nuclei in the center

38

What are the two key infectious agents that cause caseating granulomas? What are the two stains that are used to differentiate the two?

TB and fungi

AFB stain = TB
GMS stain = Fungi

39

AFB stain + in a granuloma = ?

TB

40

GMS stain + in a granuloma = ?

Fungal cause

41

What is the first step in making a granuloma?

Macrophages present antigen via MHC II to CD4 T cells

42

What happens in the process of granuloma formation after macrophages have presented antigen to CD4 T cells via MHC II?

Macrophages secrete IL-12, inducing CD4 T cells to differentiate into Th1 cells

43

What is the role of Th1 cells in the formation of a granuloma, after they have been induced by macrophage secrete IL-12?

Secrete IFN-gamma to convert macrophages into epithelioid histiocytes and giant cells

44

What is the cytokine relationship in granuloma formation between macrophages and CD cells?

Macrophages secrete IL-12 to cause CD4 cells to differentiate into Th1, and receive IFN-gamma in return