Flashcards in 1.4 Free Radical injury Deck (19):
What, technically, is a free radical?
Chemical species with an unpaired electron in the outer orbit
What is the sequence of chemical that are formed with adding e- to oxygen?
What are the metals that classically produce free radicals?
What free radical is generated from ionizing radiation hitting water?
What is the most damaging free radical?
What is the name of the reaction that generates free radicals from Fe?
What is the underlying mechanism of damage in both Wilson's disease, and hemochromatosis?
Free radical production and damage
What is the MOA of the drug used to treat acetaminophen overdose?
N-acetylcysteine--L-cysteine is a precursor to the biologic antioxidant glutathione. Hence administration of acetylcysteine replenishes glutathione stores
What are the two major ways that free radicals cause damage?
-Peroxidation of lipids
-Oxidation of DNA and proteins
What are the three major mechanisms by which free radicals can be eliminated?
-Metal carrier proteins
What are the three major enzymes involved in the breakdown of free radicals?
What is the enzyme that breaks down superoxide? What does it turn this into?
What is the enzyme that breaks down H2O2? What does it turn this into?
What is the enzyme that breaks down OH*? What does it turn this into?
What is the chemical that was classically found in the dry cleaning industry that is a major producer of free radicals?
Where does CCl4 get metabolized? What happens to the metabolite generated?
p450- system of the liver
CCl3 damages hepatocytes
What is the classic histological change that occurs with CCl3 injury? Why?
Fatty change, d/t disruption of apolipoprotein synthesis and buildup of lipids
What causes reperfusion injury?
When oxygen returns, PMNs react to the dead tissue and produce free radicals, which the cells cannot handle d/t loss of protective mechanisms