6.2 Acute Leukemia Flashcards Preview

All the things continued > 6.2 Acute Leukemia > Flashcards

Flashcards in 6.2 Acute Leukemia Deck (33):
1

What is the basis for acute leukemia?

Accumulation of blast cells d/t cell inability to mature properly

2

Acute leukemia is defined as what?

When there is >20% of blasts in the bone marrow

3

What is the cause of the ssx of acute leukemia?

blast cells crowding out normal cells/not producing normal cells (so anemia, neutropenia, leukopenia etc)

4

Why is there a high WBC count if there are not any mature cells being produced in leukemia?

Tons of blasts

5

What are the histological findings of acute leukemia?

Large, immature cells with punched out nucleoli

6

What is the marker for ALL? AML?

ALL = tdt
AML= myeloperoxidase

7

tdt in the nucleus of an immature WBC = what disease? What is tdt?

ALL
DNApol in lymphoblasts

8

Auer rod = what disease?

AML

9

Down syndrome is associated with what hematological malignancy? What age does this appear after?

ALL
After age of 5 yo

10

Who usually gets ALL?

Children

11

What are the two division of ALL?

B-ALL
T-ALL

12

B-ALL surface markers = ?

CD10
CD19
CD20

13

What is the prognosis for B-ALL?

Good with chemo

14

What parts of the body need to be given prophylaxis of chemo for B-ALL?

scrotum and CSF

15

What are the two translocations associated with B-ALL? Which is associated with children and has a good prognosis, and which with adults and has a bad prognosis?

t(12;21) = kids
t(9;22) = adults (philadelphia chromosome)

16

What are the cell markers for T-ALL?

CD2 thru CD8

17

What are the signs of T-ALL that distinguish it from B-ALL?

Thymic mass in a teenager

18

Diseases whose names end in -oma are what?

Masses

19

What are auer rods?

Crystallized myeloperoxidase--an enzyme only found in myeloblasts, hence why these are pathognomonic for AML

20

Punched out nucleolus = ?

Lymphoblasts

21

Who gets AML?

Old people (50-60)

22

What are the three types of classification in AML?

-Cytogenetic abnormalities
-Lineage of myeloblasts
-Surface markers

23

What is the chromosomal translocation found in acute promyelocytic leukemia?

t(15;17)

24

What disease is caused by a t(15;17)? how?

Acute promyelocytic leukemia
Retinoic acid receptor disrupted, inhibiting promyelocyte maturation

25

Promyelocytes that contain numerous Auer rods, as seen in acute promyelocytic leukemia, poses a risk for what complication?

DIC

26

What is the treatment for acute promyelocytic leukemia?

ATRA (all trans-retinoic acid)--very good prognosis

27

What is the cause of acute monocytic leukemia? What is the telltale sign of this?

Proliferation of monoblasts that lack MPO
Infiltration of the gums = gingival hypertrophy

28

What is the cause of acute megakaryoblastic leukemia? What disease is associated with this?

Proliferation of megakaryocytes that lack MPO
Down syndrome BEFORE age 5)

29

What is the CA that appears before the age of 5 for down syndrome pts? After?

Before = acute megakaryoblastic leukemia
After = ALL

30

What chemotherapeutic agent can lead to AML?

Alkylating agents

31

What condition may cause an increased risk of developing AML?

Preexisting dysplasia

32

What is myelodysplastic syndrome?

Cytopenia with *hyper*cellular bone marrow

33

Abnormal maturation of myeloid progenitor cells with 20%?

20% acute myeloid leukemia