Flashcards in 6.2 Acute Leukemia Deck (33):
What is the basis for acute leukemia?
Accumulation of blast cells d/t cell inability to mature properly
Acute leukemia is defined as what?
When there is >20% of blasts in the bone marrow
What is the cause of the ssx of acute leukemia?
blast cells crowding out normal cells/not producing normal cells (so anemia, neutropenia, leukopenia etc)
Why is there a high WBC count if there are not any mature cells being produced in leukemia?
Tons of blasts
What are the histological findings of acute leukemia?
Large, immature cells with punched out nucleoli
What is the marker for ALL? AML?
ALL = tdt
tdt in the nucleus of an immature WBC = what disease? What is tdt?
DNApol in lymphoblasts
Auer rod = what disease?
Down syndrome is associated with what hematological malignancy? What age does this appear after?
After age of 5 yo
Who usually gets ALL?
What are the two division of ALL?
B-ALL surface markers = ?
What is the prognosis for B-ALL?
Good with chemo
What parts of the body need to be given prophylaxis of chemo for B-ALL?
scrotum and CSF
What are the two translocations associated with B-ALL? Which is associated with children and has a good prognosis, and which with adults and has a bad prognosis?
t(12;21) = kids
t(9;22) = adults (philadelphia chromosome)
What are the cell markers for T-ALL?
CD2 thru CD8
What are the signs of T-ALL that distinguish it from B-ALL?
Thymic mass in a teenager
Diseases whose names end in -oma are what?
What are auer rods?
Crystallized myeloperoxidase--an enzyme only found in myeloblasts, hence why these are pathognomonic for AML
Punched out nucleolus = ?
Who gets AML?
Old people (50-60)
What are the three types of classification in AML?
-Lineage of myeloblasts
What is the chromosomal translocation found in acute promyelocytic leukemia?
What disease is caused by a t(15;17)? how?
Acute promyelocytic leukemia
Retinoic acid receptor disrupted, inhibiting promyelocyte maturation
Promyelocytes that contain numerous Auer rods, as seen in acute promyelocytic leukemia, poses a risk for what complication?
What is the treatment for acute promyelocytic leukemia?
ATRA (all trans-retinoic acid)--very good prognosis
What is the cause of acute monocytic leukemia? What is the telltale sign of this?
Proliferation of monoblasts that lack MPO
Infiltration of the gums = gingival hypertrophy
What is the cause of acute megakaryoblastic leukemia? What disease is associated with this?
Proliferation of megakaryocytes that lack MPO
Down syndrome BEFORE age 5)
What is the CA that appears before the age of 5 for down syndrome pts? After?
Before = acute megakaryoblastic leukemia
After = ALL
What chemotherapeutic agent can lead to AML?
What condition may cause an increased risk of developing AML?
What is myelodysplastic syndrome?
Cytopenia with *hyper*cellular bone marrow