Flashcards in 22.3 Carbohydrates Deck (28):
What is the general formula of a carbohydrate?
A biomolecule having the general formula of (CH2O)n
How can we identify a carbohydrate structurally?
As a polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketone
What are carbohydrates responsible for in living organisms?
Short storage of energy
(Make up the main structural component of plants)
____ is a six-carbon aldehyde (that is, it contains the -CHO group) with -OH groups on five of the six carbon atoms
what causes glucose to be soluble in water (and therefore blood) which is crucial to glucose's role as the primary fuel of cells?
the many -OH groups (which exist on five of the six carbon atoms)
what two ways can carbohydrates be broadly classified?
simple carbohydrates (or simple sugars) and complex carbohydrates
a simple carbohydrate containing 3 to 8 carbon atoms, with only one aldehyde or ketone group
how do you name a monosaccharide (general)?
prefix that indicates the number of carbon atoms + suffix -ose (ex. 3-carbon sugar: triose)
what are the two most common carbohydrates in living organisms?
pentoses and hexoses
glucose is what monosaccaride?
a sugar that is an aldehyde
(a sugar with one aldehyde group)
when you combine the two ways of designating sugars what is glucose called?
a common carbohydrate is ____, which is a polyhydroxy ketone
glucose and fructose are _____ (or______) isomers
(ie they both have the same formula (C6H12O6) but have different structures)
fructose is a _____, a sugar that is a ketone
since fructose has 6 carbon atoms, it is a _____
monosaccharides contain _____ centers
for monosaccharides absolute configurations can be denoted using _____ _____
define Fischer Projections
a way to represent the absolute configurations of molecules usually monosaccharides
in fischer projections the horizontal bonds are projected ____ the viewer and the vertical bonds are projected ______ from the viewer
most five- and six-carbon monosaccharides undergo intremolecular reactions that cause what?
the reactions convert their stright carbon chain into a ring
for a five- and six-carbon monosaccharides which groups react intermolecularly in order to from a ring?
one of the alcohol groups with and the aldehyde or ketone group
two monosaccharides can link together via ____ to form a disaccharide.
a carbohydrate composed of two monosaccharides
(a carbohydrate that can be decomposed into two simple sugars)
define glycosidic linkage
a bond between carbohydrates that results from a dehydration reaction
when we eat disaccharides, the link between individual monosacchairdes is broken during digestion by ______