22.3 Carbohydrates Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 22.3 Carbohydrates Deck (28):
1

What is the general formula of a carbohydrate?

(CH2O)n

2

Define carbohydrate

A biomolecule having the general formula of (CH2O)n

3

How can we identify a carbohydrate structurally?

As a polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketone

4

What are carbohydrates responsible for in living organisms?

Short storage of energy

(Make up the main structural component of plants)

5

____ is a six-carbon aldehyde (that is, it contains the -CHO group) with -OH groups on five of the six carbon atoms

glucose

6

what causes glucose to be soluble in water (and therefore blood) which is crucial to glucose's role as the primary fuel of cells?

the many -OH groups (which exist on five of the six carbon atoms)

7

what two ways can carbohydrates be broadly classified?

simple carbohydrates (or simple sugars) and complex carbohydrates

8

define monosaccharides

a simple carbohydrate containing 3 to 8 carbon atoms, with only one aldehyde or ketone group
("one sugar")

9

how do you name a monosaccharide (general)?

prefix that indicates the number of carbon atoms + suffix -ose (ex. 3-carbon sugar: triose)

10

what are the two most common carbohydrates in living organisms?

pentoses and hexoses

11

glucose is what monosaccaride?

hexose

12

define aldose

a sugar that is an aldehyde
(a sugar with one aldehyde group)

13

when you combine the two ways of designating sugars what is glucose called?

aldohexose

14

a common carbohydrate is ____, which is a polyhydroxy ketone

fructose

15

glucose and fructose are _____ (or______) isomers

constitutional
structural
(ie they both have the same formula (C6H12O6) but have different structures)

16

fructose is a _____, a sugar that is a ketone

ketose

17

since fructose has 6 carbon atoms, it is a _____

ketohexose

18

monosaccharides contain _____ centers

chiral

19

for monosaccharides absolute configurations can be denoted using _____ _____

fischer projections

20

define Fischer Projections

a way to represent the absolute configurations of molecules usually monosaccharides

21

in fischer projections the horizontal bonds are projected ____ the viewer and the vertical bonds are projected ______ from the viewer

toward
away

22

most five- and six-carbon monosaccharides undergo intremolecular reactions that cause what?

the reactions convert their stright carbon chain into a ring

23

for a five- and six-carbon monosaccharides which groups react intermolecularly in order to from a ring?

one of the alcohol groups with and the aldehyde or ketone group

24

two monosaccharides can link together via ____ to form a disaccharide.

glycosidic linkage

25

define disaccharide

a carbohydrate composed of two monosaccharides
(a carbohydrate that can be decomposed into two simple sugars)

26

define glycosidic linkage

a bond between carbohydrates that results from a dehydration reaction

27

when we eat disaccharides, the link between individual monosacchairdes is broken during digestion by ______

hydrolysis

28

define hydrolysis

the splitting of a chemical bond with water, that results in the addition of H and OH to the products