chapter 22.4 protiens and amino acids Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in chapter 22.4 protiens and amino acids Deck (17):
1

define enzyme

a biological catalyst made of proteins that increases the rates of biochemical reactions
(proteins that act as catalysts in biochemical reactions)

2

______ are the polymers of amino acids

proteins

3

what does an amino acid consist of?

carbon atom (called the alpha carbon) bonded to
1. amine group
2. R group (also called the side chain)
3. carboxylic acid group
4. hydrogen atom

4

how do amino acids differ from eachother?

the R groups

5

_____ are strung to make a protein

amino acids

6

all amino acids except _____ are chiral about the alpha carbon atom

glycine

7

what type of enantiomers are amino acids? L or D?

L
(they rotate plain polarized light counter clockwise)

8

how do amino acids link together?

through the reaction of the amine end of one amino acid with the carboxylic acid end of another

9

what is the resulting bond when two amino acids link together?

a peptide bond

10

when two amino acids are linked together by a peptide bond what is the resulting molecule?

dipeptide

11

define peptide bond

the amide group that joins two amino acids

12

define dipeptide

two amino acids linked together

13

when two or more amino acids link together what two distinct ends do they form?

an amino terminal (or N-terminal end)
a carboxylic acid terminal (or C-terminal end)

14

what are 3 amino acids joined together by peptide bonds called? what about 4?

tripeptide
tetrapeptide
(and so on)

15

what are short chains of amino acids called?

oligopeptides

16

what are longer chains of amino acids called (more than 20 )

polypeptides

17

functional proteins usually contain one or more _____ chains with each chain consisting of hundreds or even thousands of _____ joined by peptide bonds

polypeptide
amino acids