Flashcards in Chapter 3.5: Organic Compounds Deck (26):
Define organic compounds
a class of molecular compounds that are composed of carbon and hydrogen and a few other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur
organic compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen
what is the simplest organic compound?
what are the two categories of organic compounds?
hydrocarbons and functionalized hydrocarbons
hydrocarbons containing only single bonds are called...?
organic compounds contain double bonds between carbon atoms are called...?
organic compounds contain triple bonds between carbon atoms are called...?
define functional group
a characteristic atom or group of atoms that imparts certain chemical properties to an organic compound
alcohols are organic compounds that have an ____ functional group
we designates the hydrocabron portion of a molecule as ___
An atom or group of atoms that has been substituted for a hydrogen atom in an organic compound
a group of organic compounds with the same functional group
what does the base name for a alkane always end in?
what are alkyl groups?
groups of carbon branching off the base chain
to name alkanes name the 4 steps you should take
1. find the longest carbon chain. this is the base name
2. name all the substituent chains
3.assign numbers to each substituent from the end closest to the substituent (and if both sides have substituents that are equidistant name it according to which side has the next substituent closer)
4. name the compound according to the following format
(substituent number) - (substituent name) (base name)
alkenes and alkynes are named in the same way but with what exceptions?
1. the base chain is the longest continuous chain that contains the double or triple bond
2. the base name ends in -ene for alkenes and -yne for alkynes
3. the base chain is numbered to give the double or triple bond the lowest possible number
4. a number indicating the position of the double or triple bond (the lowest possible number) is inserted just before the suffix -ene or -yne.
what are numbers that indicate location called
what are cyclic hydrocarbons?
hydrocarbons that contain rings of carbon chains
how are cycloalkanes and cycloalkenes named?
by adding the prefix cyclo- to the base name of the alkane or alkene
when naming a cycloalkene where should you always start your numbering?
at the double bond
what is the name of the most common aromatic hydrocarbon?
benzene (6 carbon bonded in a ring)
what is an aromatic hydrocarbon?
a cyclic hydrocarbon that contains alternating single and double carbon-carbon bonds in the ring
how do you name a substituted benzene?
the base name is simply benzene. the psotion of each substituent is identified with a number. the order of the numbering on the ring is determined by the alphabetical order of substituents
if the substituent in a substituted benzene is very large what is the substituent called?
a phenyl group
(and the prefix of the name of the chain is phenyl)
for compounds that contain a single functional group, a prefix or suffix that corresponds to the functional group is added to the ______ base name