Flashcards in Phosphorus Deck (25):
what group is phosphorus?
is phosphorus a metal or non metal?
as a result of phosphorus being a metal what two qualities does it have?
forms acidic oxides
when was phosphorus discovered?
how was phosphorus first ?
by accident when a alchemist was trying to get gold from pee
what 3 qualities does white phosphorus have?
spontaneously combusts in air
is white phosphorus toxic?
to humans, yes
for over 100 years what was the main source of phosphorus?
how is phosphorus obtained today?
obtained from calcium phosphate (apatite) (Ca3(PO4)2)
this mineral is heated with sand and coke to get white phosphorus
what is the shape of P4 (white phosphorus)?
tetrahedron (phosphorus in corners)
what are the bond angles in tertahedron?
all 60 degrees
what is the reason white phosphorus is so unstable and reactive?
because the 60 degree angles of the tetrahedron mean lots of bond strain
if white phosphorus is heated in the abscence of air to 300 degrees what happens?
it changes its structure to a different allotrope called red phosphorus
what is the structure of red phoshorus
tetrahedron with a bond moved to connect it to another tetrahedron, forms a chain
is red phosphorus as reactive and toxic as white phosphorus?
what is red phosphorus commonly used for?
match heads (of the strike anywhere sort)
what form of phosphorus is used in match heads?
what oxidizing agent is added to this?
how is black phosphorus obtained?
by heating white phosphorus under pressure
how is black phosphorus in terms of stabilty and reactivity/
the least reactive and most stable of the three allotropes
what range of oxidation states does phosphorus have?
-3 to +5
which oxidizing state of phosphorus is the most stable
what is phosphorus's valance electron configuration
what is phosphine (PH3)?
a colourless, poisonous gas that smells like dead fish
what is the oxidation state of phosphorus in phosphine?