Chapter 7: Quantum Mechanics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7: Quantum Mechanics Deck (162):
1

What doe the wave equation apply to?

It applies to any measured value that is a function of position at a given time or to any measured value that is a function of time at a given position.

2

What is the name and symbol for the distance between two adjacent crests peaks (or any two analogous points) on a wave?

Wavelength - λ (lamda)

3

What is the name and symbol for the time between the two peaks, or the time it takes to complete one cycle?

Period - T

4

Frequency, symbol _____, is inversely proportional to _____.

v
T
(so V= 1/T)

5

When wave moves does any matter actually change position when referring to light or sound waves?

No matter changes position, only the crest (or any other point on the wave), appears to change position.

6

What is phase velocity?

The velocity at which the trough (or peak, or other) appears to move

7

Phase velocity is proportional to _____ and inversely proportional to _____.

wavelength (λ)
period (T)

(phase velocity=λ/T)

8

Phase velocity is proportional to ____ and ____.

wavelength (λ)
Frequency (ⱱ)

(phase velocity=λ∙ⱱ)

9

What is the phase velocity of electromagnetic radiation (light in particular)?

3.00 x 10^8 m/s

10

In which region of the electromagnetic spectrum does light exist?

From λ 400 nm to 750 nm

11

λ 400nm is ____ light

voilet

12

λ 750nm is ____ light

red

13

Is it possible to measure the frequency of lIght? If not how do we figure it out?

No, though we can calculate it multiplying the wavelength and phase velocity

14

How do we measure the wavelength of light?

Through constructive and destructive interference

15

Constructive interference occurs when the waves are ______ phase.
Destructive interference occurs when waves are _____ phase.

in
out of

16

In the double slit experiment what occurs in the halfway point between the two slits?

A bright spot

17

Why does a bright spot occur halfway between the two slits in the double slit experiment?

It occurs because at this point both of the waves travelling from the slit have traveled the same distance, and because they both have the same source and therefore wavelength, constructive interference occurs and the light therefore appears brighter

18

As you travel away from the halfway point in the double slit experiment what pattern occurs and why?

A pattern of light and dark occurs, this is because when you move away the length the wave has to travel increases for one and decreases for the other so the are either in or out of phase, due to the length the wave must travel. this creates alternating constructive and destructive interference.

19

What does the quantum-mechanical model of the atom explain?

It explains how electrons exist in atoms and how those electrons determine the chemical and physical properties of elements

20

What common characteristic do both light and electrons share?

Wave -particle duality

21

What is electromagnetic radiation?

A type of energy embodied in oscillating electric and magnetic fields

22

Light is.....?

Electromagnetic radiation

23

What is an electric field?

A region of space where an electrically charged particle experiences a force

24

What is a magnetic field?

A region of space where a magnetic particle experiences a force

25

How can you best describe the way an electromagnetic radiation wave is composed?

Electric and magnetic fields that are Oscillating, mutually perpendicular, and propagating through space

26

What is the amplitude of a wave?

The height of a crest or the depth of a trough

27

What does the amplitude of the electric and magnetic fields of a wave of light determine?

It determines the lights intensity (or brightness)

The amplitude is proportional to the intensity

28

What SI units are wavelengths measured in?

Meters

29

A wave with the ______ amplitude and _____ wavelength will result in the most energetic wave.

Largest
Shortest

30

A wave with the ______ amplitude and _____ wavelength will result in the least energetic wave.

Smallest
Longest

31

What is frequency(v)?

The number of cycles (or wave crests) that pass through a stationary point in a given period of time.

32

What three main things are used to characterize light?

Wavelength
Amplitude of the wave
Frequency

33

What are the units for frequency?

Cycles per second or s^-1 or hertz (Hz)

34

Frequency is directly proportional to _____ and inversely proportional to ____. So therefore in the case of light which formula can be used?

The speed at which the wave is traveling
The wavelength

v=c/λ

35

For visible light what factor determined the colour of the light?

Wavelength (or alternately frequency)

36

How does a wave diffract?

A wave diffracts when it encounters an obstacle or slit that is comparable in size to its wavelength

37

What is the photo electric effect?

The observation that metals can emit electrons when light shines Upon them.

38

How does light cause a electron to be emitted from a metal?

It occurs due to a high energy photon having enough energy to dislodge the electron as well as transfer more energy onto the electron in the form of kinetic energy

39

Does increasing the intensity of the light increase the energy of the photons?

No

40

Does increasing the frequency of the light increase the energy of the photons?

Yes

41

What is atom spectroscopy?

The study of the electromagnetic radiation absorbed and emitted by atoms

42

When an atom absorbs energy (in the form of heat, light, or electricity) it often emits that energy as _____

Light

43

What is the emission spectrum?

The range of wavelength emitted by a particular elements; used to identify an element

44

In the double slit experiment what is the bright spot in the halfway points between the two slits called?

zero order

from there on they are called 1st order then 2nd order and so on and so forth

45

In the double slit experiment if we change the wavelength of the light what also changes?

the distance between the bright spots.

(λ ∝ distance between bright spots)

46

In the double slit experiment if the screen is far from the slits the distance between bright spots will be much ____ than λ

much larger

47

Which equation did scientists discover to be true when an atom emits or absorbs light?

ΔEatom = ±hⱱ

(ofs)

48

If light is absorbed by an atom then ΔEatom is _____ than zero

greater

49

If light is emitted by an atom then ΔEatom is _____ than zero

less

50

what value does h the constant in ΔEatom = ±hⱱ have? and what is the name of this constant?

h = 6.626 x 10^-34 J∙s (ofs)
plancks constant

51

What equation do we call Photon energy?

Ephtoton = hⱱ

52

When an atom absorbs energy (light) what occurs?

an electron is being excited

53

If enough energy is applied to an atom what can occur?

the electron is excited so much that it has enough energy to escape the atom and so it ejects into space

54

When an atom escapes into space after exceeding the binding energy what does its energy become?

kinetic energy

55

What other two names is the binding energy referred to by?

threshold energy and work function

56

what is the binding energy?

the amount of energy is takes for an electron to escape the atom

57

The transitions between levels that are farther apart in energy produce light that is ______ in wavelength

Shorter

58

The transitions between levels that are closer together in energy produce light that is ______ in wavelength

Longer

59

Which ions is the Bohr theory successful in explaining the spectra of?

Hydrogen like ions (only have one electron)

60

ΔE= -2.18 x 10⁻¹⁸ J (Z²/nf² - Z²/ni²) what does the Z mean?

Z is the atomic number

61

When an electron transitions between stationary states in a hydrogen atom what causes the transition to be unlike any macroscopic transition?

The electron is NEVER observed between states (the transition is instantaneous)

62

Why does the emission spectrum of an atom consist of discrete lines?

Because the stationary states only exist at specific, fixed energies

63

What is the energy of the photon created when an electron makes a transition from one stationary state to another?

The difference in energy between the two stationary states

64

Transitions between stationary states that are closer together produce light of a _____ energy (_____ wavelength) than transitions between stationary states that are farther apart

Lower
Longer

65

What causes the interference patterns of electrons?

Single electrons interfering with themselves (not electrons interfering with each other)

66

What important conclusion was made about the wave nature of electrons and what does it explain?

The wave nature of electrons is an inherent property of individual electrons and it explains the existence of of stationary states and prevents the electrons in an atom from crashing into the nucleus

67

What is the de Brogile relation?

λ = h/ mv

68

Does light make up a large portion of the electromagnetic spectrum?

No it makes up a very small portion

69

What range of wavelengths does the electro magnetic spectrum span over?

10^-15 to 10^5 m

70

What wave on the electromagnetic spectrum has the highest frequency and shortest wavelength?

Gamma rays

71

What wave on the electromagnetic spectrum has the lowest frequency and longest wavelength?

Radio waves

72

Planck assumed that energy was emitted in discrete packets called ____ in order to obtain agreement with the black body radiation curve.

Quanta

73

Albert Einstein called packets of light ____

Photons

74

Increasing the frequency of light ____ the energy of the photons

Increases

75

Increasing the intensity of the light _____ increase the energy of the photons

Does not

76

When an atom absorbs energy - in the form of heat, light or electricity - what often occurs?

The atom re emits that energy as light

77

What can the emission spectrum of an atom be used to identify?

It can be used to identify the element

78

Why does the emission spectrum of an atom consist of discrete lines?

Because the stationary states only exist at specific, fixed energies

79

What does each wavelength in the emission spectrum of an atom correspond to?

It corresponds to an electron transition between two energy levels

80

what causes an atom to emit light?

When an atoms absorbs energy, an electron in a lower energy level is excited (or promoted), to a higher energy level. This state however is unstable and the electron will quickly fall back (or relax) to a lower energy level. as the electron relaxes it releases a photon of light

81

What nature is the velocity of an electron related to?

Wave nature

82

WhAt nature is the position of an electron related to?

Particle nature

83

Does observing an event affect the outcome?

Yes

84

What does Heisenberg's uncertainty principle state?

It states that the product of Δx and mΔv must be greater than or equal to a finite number (h/4π)

85

The more accurately you know the position of an electron the _____ accurately you know the velocity of the electron and ____ ____

Less
Vice versa

86

An electron is observed as either a wave ___ a particle, but...

Or
But never both at once

87

Electrons are indeterminate because???

Even if a electron was shot from the same place every time in the exact same way it would never hit the same spot twice

88

For electrons which two properties are complementary to position?

Velocity and energy

89

Why do we say that electrons are in certain orbital instead of giving their position?

Because energy and position are complementary and orbitals are not position but well defined energy

90

what is the general form of the schrodinger equation?

Hѱ=Eѱ

91

What is the symbol for wave function?

ѱ

92

What three interrelated quantum numbers is each orbital specified by?

Principle quantum number, n
Angular momentum quantum number (sometimes called azimuthal quantum number), l
Magnetic quantum number, mı

SUBSCRIPT L

93

What is the principle quantum number (n) ?

It is an integer that determines the overall size and indicates the energy level of an electron in an orbital.


(Values n: 1,2,3....)

94

What is the Rydberg constant for hydrogen?

2.18 x 10^-18 J

95

What is the angular momentum quantum number (L)

It is an integer that correspond primarily with the shape of the orbital

96

What is the magnetic quantum number (ml)?

It is an integer which specifies the orientation of the orbital

97

Each specific combination of n, l, ml specifies

One atomic orbital

98

Orbitals with the same value of n are said to be in the same _______ or _______

Principle level
Principle shell

99

Orbitals with the same value of n and l are said to be in the same _____ or ______

Sublevel
Subshell

100

The number of sublevels is equal to...

The principle quantum number (n)

101

The number of orbitals in any sublevel is equal to...

2 l + 1

102

The number of orbitals in a level is equal to...

103

The 1s orbital is the ____ energy orbital. It is _____ _____.

Lowest
Spherically symmetrical

104

What does the three dimensional plot of the wave function represent?

Probability density

105

Probability density is...?

The probability (per unit volume) of finding an electron at a point in space

106

What is wave function squared is equal to?

Probability density (=probability / unit volume)

107

As the radius (the distance from the nucleus) increases the probability density ____.

Decreases

108

What does the radial distribution function represent?

It represents the total probability of finding the electron within a thin spherical shell at a distance r from the nucleus

109

Total radial probability (at a given r) =...?

(Probability / unit volume) volume of shell at r

110

A node is a point where the wave function, and therefore the probability density and the radial distribution....

All go through zero

111

What is a radial node?

A spherical region in which there is zero probability of finding an electron

(Sometimes also called spherical node)

112

What is an angular node?

A plane or surface where there is zero probability of finding an electron

113

For any orbital, there are ___ angular nodes

l

114

Each principle level with n=2 or greater contains ____ ____ orbitals

Three
P

115

Each principle level with n=3 or greater contains ____ ____ orbitals

Five
D

116

Each principle level with n=4 or greater has ____ ____ orbitals

7
F

117

What is known as the phase of a wave?

The sign of the amplitude of a wave - positive or negative

118

What is electron configuration?

A notation that shows the particular orbitals that are occupied by electrons in an atom

119

What is the ground state?

The lowest energy state

120

What is electron spin?

A fundamental property of all electrons that affects the number of electrons allowed in one orbital

121

What is sublevel energy splitting?

Determines the order of electron filling with in a orbital

122

In a orbital diagram the direction of the arrow represents what?

Electron spin

123

Spin is a ____ _____ of all electrons. All electrons have _____ amount of spin

Basic property
The same

124

The orientation of an electrons spin is _____, with only two possibilities that we can call ____ and ____.

Quantized
Spin up
Spin down

125

What is the spin of an electron specified by?

A fourth quantum number called the spin number (ms)

126

What are the possible values of the spin quantum number?

+ 1/2 (spin up)
Or
-1/2 (spin down)

127

What is the maximum number of electrons an orbital can have?

2
(With opposing spins)

128

In general, the ____ the value of l within a principle level, the lower the energy of the corresponding orbital

Lower

129

What are the three key concepts ascociated with the energy of an electron in the vicinity of a nucleus?

(1) coulumbs law, which describes the interactions between charge particles
(2) shielding, which describes how one electron can shield another electron from the full charge of the nucleus
(3) penetration, which describes how one atomic orbital can overlap spatially with another, thus penetrating into a region that is close to the nucleus (and therefore less shielded from nuclear charge)

130

What is coulombs law?

The potential energy (E) of two charge particles depends on their charges (q1 and q2) and on their separation (r)

(ΔEp=(kq1q2)/r)

131

For like charges, the potential energy is ____ and ____ as the particles get father apart (as r increases). Since systems tend toward _____ potential energy, like charges ____ each other.

Positive
Decreases
Lower
Repel

132

For opposite charges, the potential energy is ____ and becomes more _____ as the particles get closer together (as r decreases). Therefore opposite charges ____ each other

Negative
Negative
Attract

133

The magnitude of the interaction between charged particles _____ as the charges of the particles increase

Increases

134

If there is only one electron in an ion or atom the 2s and 2p orbitals _____.

Degenerate

135

What is Hunds rule?

Hunds rule states that when filling degenerate orbitals, electrons fill them singly, with parallel spins

136

As we move right across a row of transition elements, electrons are added to the (n-1) d orbitals where n is...?

The row number in the periodic table and also the quantum number of the highest occupied principle level

137

What is paramagnetic?

The state of an atom or ion that contains unpaired electrons and is, therefore, attracted to an external magnetic force

138

What is diamagnetic?

The state of an atom or ion that contains only paired electrons and is, therefore, slightly repelled by an external magnetic field

139

What is the form of electromagnetic radiation with the shortest wavelength?

Gamma ray

140

Define interference

Characteristic interaction between waves that can result in the waves cancel it out of building each other up based on their alignment upon interaction

141

What is constructive interference?

When waves that are in phase combine to make a wave with a greater amplitude

142

What is destructive interference?

When waves that are out of phase interact to cancel each other out

143

Define diffraction

The bending of a wave when it encounters an obstacle or slit that is comparable to its wavelength in size

144

what is the speed of light in a vacuum?

3.00 x 10ˆ8 m/s

145

you can characterize a wave by its ____ and its ____

amplitude
wavelength

146

define wavelength

the distance between two adjacent crests (or any two analogous points)

147

what is the quantum-mechanical model?

a model which explains how electrons exist in an atom and how those electrons determine the chemistry and the physical properties of elements

148

light was found to have many characteristics in common with _____ and the strongest similar characteristics was the _____ ______ of light

electrons
wave-partical duality

149

In the double slit experiment the diffraction of light through two slits separated by distance ____ to the ____ of the light, coupled with interference, results in an _____ _____

comparable
wavelength
interference pattern

150

_____ is a result of the ability of a wave to diffract through two slits ---- this is an _____ ____ of light

interference
inherent property

151

light used to dislodge electrons in the photo electric affect exhibited ____ ___

threshold frequency

152

in the photo electric affect what occurs when the light was below the threshold frequency?

no electrons were emitted no matter how long the light shone on the metal

153

______-_____ light does not eject electrons from a metal regardless of its ____ or _____

low-frequency (or long-wavelength)
intensity
duration

154

why doesnt low frequency light eject electrons?

because no single photon (of low-energy light) has the minimum energy necessary to dislodge the electron

155

define emission spectrum

the range of wavelengths emittted by a particular element; used to identify the element

156

when an atom absorbs energy, an electron in a lower energy level is ____ to a ____ energy level. This position, however, is ____ and the electron quickly ___ ___ to a ___ energy level

excited
higher
unstable
falls back
lower

157

transitions between the energy levels of an atom which are father apart produce light that is ____ in wavelength, and therefore higher in ____, than between energy levels that are closer together

shorter
higher

158

during a transition from energy level to another electrons are NEVER observed _____ _____. the transition is ____

between states
instantaneous

159

the velocity of a moving electron is related via the de Brogile relation to its _____. so to know one is to know the other

wavelength

160

what experiment demonstrates that you cannot simultaneously observe both the wave nature and the particle nature of an electron

the single electron diffraction experiment

161

can you simultaneously observe both particle and wave nature of an electron?

no

162

define orbital

A probability distribution map, based on the quantum mechanical model of the atom, used to describe the likely position of an electron in an atom; also an allowed energy state for an electron