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What is an operational definition?

A way of defining something by telling what tests something must pass in order to be defined.

EXAMPLE: To be matter, something must occupy space and have mass. If something does not pass these tests, it is not matter.


What are the differences between pure substances and mixtures?

Pure substances are made of just one kind of particle (example: pure water).

Mixtures are combinations of 2 or more pure substances (example:sugar and water).


States of matter

Solid, liquid, gas, and plasma


What usually determines something's state of matter?


EXAMPLE: changing liquid water's temperature can make it ice (solid) or steam (gas).


What is matter?

Anything that occupies space and has mass.


What is the motion and arrangement of particles for GAS?

Gas particles are far apart and move very fast. They have almost no attraction to each other, no fixed shape, and no constant volume.


What is the arrangement and motion of particles in SOLIDS?

Solids-particles are attracted to each other, vibrate in a fixed place (stay in 1 place), and their volume doesn't change.


What is the arrangement and motion of particles in LIQUIDS?

Liquids-particles can move around, but are still close together. They don't have a fixed shape, but their volumes stay the same.


How is the plasma state of a substance different from the gas state of the same substance?

Plasma acts like a gas, but its particles move even faster than gas particles and collide so hard that they break apart and become electrically charged.

Example: the sun is in a plasma state


What state of change is water vapor becoming liquid water droplets?


Example: dew drops on grass are formed by lots of water vapor in the air


What state of change happens when molten steel hardens?

Freezing or solidification


What state of change is it when ice forms on the windshield of your car?


The water vapor freezes into a solid


What is sublimation?

When a solid turns into a gas (or vapor)

Example: a block of dry ice turning into vapor.


What are 3 ways to measure matter?

1.Mass-quantity of matter
2. Weight-gravitational attraction
3.volume-the space it occupies