Flashcards in Unit Test Ch 9-12 Deck (33):
What is the definition of a mineral?
Minerals are naturally occurring, organic, crystalline solid, and chemical element or compound.
What mineral is made up of one kind of element?
Define Streak Testing Physical Property of Minerals
Uses a porcelain plate, rub against the plate, gives the true color, not the same as physical color
Define Luster Testing Physical Property of Minerals
Amount of light and quality of light reflected
Define Crystal Shape & Growth Testing Physical Property of Minerals
Microscopic, large, and Accretion or the growth of minerals
Define Hardness Testing Physical Property of Minerals
Uses the Molis hardness scale from 1 to 10, diamond is the hardest and Tak is the softest
Define Flame Testing Physical Property of Minerals
Uses powder from the mineral, put in a flame and observe the color
Define Acid Testing Physical Property of Minerals
Put acid in mineral and see if the mineral dissolves it
Define Magnetism Testing Physical Property of Minerals
Place a magnet near the mineral and see if the object magnetizes to the mineral
What are the two types of mining?
Deep & Surface mining
Definition of a rock
Solid material that are a natural combination of minerals and other substances
What is the study of rocks called?
What are the 3 types of rocks?
Igneous, Sedimentary, and Metamorphic
What is igneous rock?
Comes from volcanoes and contains silicate minerals
What is sedimentary rock?
Made of sediments and accumulates in lakes and oceans
What is metamorphic rock?
Started as another rock with chemical and physical changes
What is the type of volcanic rock that floats?
What sedimentary rocks are formed from pebbles, sand, and clay?
What do you call anything with remains of formerly living organisms?
Name 3 types of fossils
Organic material, petrified fossils, and microfossils
What do fossil fuels include?
Coal & Petroleum
What happens when some environmental factor breaks down soil?
Describe Chemical Weathering
Breaks down rock through chemical change and natural acids are part of the process
Describe Mechanical Weathering
Uses big rocks and particles to break down smaller pieces
What are two factors that affect mechanical weathering?
Frost heaving and biological weathering
What is the most important factor that a geologist deals with?
What 3 ways does does mass wasting occur?
Gravity, Creep, & Slump
What is a large mass of dense ice that flows under the influence of gravity?
Where do we find valley glaciers?
Top of mountains
Where do we find piedmont glaciers?
Base of mountains
Where do we find continental glaciers?
covers most of the continent
What are the deposits made from glaciers?