Flashcards in 3. Opposition to Nazism Deck (26)
which groups opposed?
Socialists, Youth, Churches, Conservatives and the Army
Some methods of resistance included?
hiding Jewish people, printing and distributing underground literature, occasional instances of open agitation, and attempts on Hitler’s life
why was opposition ineffective?
- The Nazis eliminated rival power centres and made a security network which meant that it was hard to organise an opposing group.
- Hitler had enormous support which meant that support for opposing groups was limited.
- Opposition was small, disorganised, lacking in support and leadership
- Gleischaltung, terror and repression, propaganda and the promotion of Nazis being answers for better Germany.
what does Richard evans say about terror used?
"Knowledge of the ever present danger of denunciation for an incautious word or expression spoken in a public space was important in spreading general fear and anxiety among the population.”
How did Socialist oppose?
Social Democrats only party to vote against Enabling Act
what happened to socialists by mid 1933?
party and once powerful trade union support base abolished and many socialist leaders sent to concentration camps or fled country
why was there shift of support of working class to Nazis?
what did communist bore the brunt of?
Nazi terror campaign and their influence eliminated
what did the communist experience of terror and influence eliminated enhance?
support of Nazis within conservative and middle class circles
Youths: when did dissent of Nazi begin?
when pressure to join the Hitler Youth was increasing from about 1937
Youths: what was the Blasen youth group?
anti authority youth gangs from the lowest levels of society, confronted Hitler Youths as despised for being out of touch with their lower class subculture
Youths: who were the Swing Youth?
– young adults mainly from wealthy social backgrounds, shared interest in Swing and Jazz music, wore trendy English clothes, apolitical rather than hostile to regime. = was no significant danger to Nazi rule.
Youths: what was the White Rose resistance movement?
(group of mostly medical students in Munich) led by Hans and Sophie School handed out anti-Nazi leaflets – though little impact, remembered as heroes of the German resistance to Nazism
Church: what kind of power did church have?
as 90% of Germans were Christian, the church could have used their moral authority against the Nazis, but did little to resist Hitler,
Church: who spoke against Hitler and Nazi party?
except for a few religious individuals, such as Cardinal von Galen who spoke against the Nazi euthanasia policy in 1939 and Pastor Paul Schneider spoke against Hitler Youth movement and Jewish policy although arrested and died at hands of SS
Conservatives: what crucial role did old right conservative classes play?
played crucial role in allowing Hitler become chancellor, undermined by Hitler’s outmaneuvering
Conservatives: what kind of opposition?
occasional protests and resistance movements
Conservatives: what does Ian Kershaw say about resistance to Nazism?
“… the ineffectiveness and failure of German resistance to Nazism had its roots in the strife-torn political climate of the Weimer Republic.”
Army: what kind of power?
one of the institution in Germany that retained the power to move against Hitler
Army: what did they do in July 1944?
attempt to assassinate Hitler
Army: how was army threat ridden?
a compromise with the Nazi regime, Hitler knew it was the only thing that stood in way of his total power and that his foreign policy goals could only be achieved with the army on side
Army: what provided satisfaction for army?
Nazi violence, such as the Night of the Long Knives
Army: what appealed to army?
program of rearmament and military expansion
Army: what further comprised the army’s potential for independent action?
Swore oath of personal allegiance to Hitler
Despite general acceptance of Hitler, significant opposition came from..?
within ranks of German military.