3: Skin structure & function 2 Flashcards Preview

Dermatology Week 1 2017/18 > 3: Skin structure & function 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3: Skin structure & function 2 Deck (40)
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1

Where do melanocytes originate from?

Neural crest

2

Which organelle, found in melanocytes, is responsible for producing converting an amino acid to melanin?

What is this amino acid called?

Melanosomes

Tyrosine

3

Melanin absorbs ___ ___.

UV radiation

4

Melanocytes have long projections which allow them to transfer melanosomes between themselves - what are these projections called?

Dendrites

5

___ caps protect the nuclei of ___ layer cells.

Melanin , basal

6

Name an autoimmune disease which targets melanocytes.

Vitiligo

7

Where are melanocytes found?

Basal layer AND above the basal layer

8

Where are Langerhans cells found?

Suprabasal (i.e in the prickle cell layer)

9

Where are Merkel cells found?

Basal layer

10

What is vitiligo?

Autoimmune disease causing destruction of melanocytes

Patient presents with loads of hypopigmented patches

11

What is albinism?

Complete / partial lack of pigment in skin, hair and eyes

Classic white appearance

12

What is Nelson's syndrome?

What causes it?

Excess melanin production leading to hyperpigmented skin

Overproduction of MSH by anterior pituitary

13

What is a tumour of melanocytes called?

Malignant melanoma

14

Where do Langerhans cells originate from?

Bone marrow (immune function)

15

Langerhans cells pick up ___ and transfer them to lymph nodes via lymph vessels.

antigens

16

What are the tennis-racquet-shaped organelles found exclusively in Langerhans cells?

Birbeck granules

17

What is the function of Merkel cells?

Mechanoreceptors

18

Cancer of which epidermal cell is caused by viral infection and has a high mortality rate?

Merkel cell cancer

19

Which layer(s) of skin are hair follicles found in?

Epidermis

and

Dermis

20

What substance is a hair follicle made of?

Keratin

21

Which type of gland is found adjacent to hair follicles?

Sebaceous gland

22

What is the deepest component of a hair follicle called?

Dermal papilla

23

Hair follicles are pigmented by melanocytes - where are these found?

Nail matrix (above the dermal papilla)

24

What is another name for a hair follicle?

Pilosebaceous unit

25

What are the muscles responsible for moving hair follicles?

Arrector pili muscles

26

What are the three phases of hair growth?

Anagen

Catagen

Telogen

27

What happens in the anagen phase of hair growth?

Hair growth

28

What happens in the catagen phase?

Involution - hair follicles get ready to shed

29

What happens in the telogen phase?

Hair sheds

30

Name a hormone which influences hair growth.

Thyroxine

Androgens - e.g testosterone