Stats to prove that social class impacts educational achievement
60% of people NOT eligible for free school meals achieved A*-C at GCSE but only 33% of those who ARE eligible got 5 GCSEs
What is the cultural deprivation theory?
WC families fail to raise their children adequately.
3 aspects of cultural deprivation theory (external)
Attitudes and values (sub-culture)
What is cognitive development in the cultural deprivation theory?
WC kids don’t receive books or educational toys needed.
Who is involved in cognitive development and why?
Young and Bernstein - mother’s choice of toys affect development. MC toys encourage thinking and reasoning skills
Cognitive development in the cultural deprivation theory A03 (2)
Learning climate predicts a child’s intellectual development by 10 years old
Not just poverty but labelling, expectations (deterministic)
Name the 2 language
Restricted and elaborated
Who studies linguistic deprivation?
A03 linguistic deprivation (4)
Influences relationship with teacher
Bereiter and Engelmann - Language in WC homes is deficient so don’t develop needed language skills
Rosen - Creates a myth of superiority and generalises classes
Troyna and Williams - Language isn’t the problem but the teacher’s attitude towards it
What does Douglas think about subcultures impacting education?
WC parents don’t have a high value on education so they are less encouraging
……………… argues that WC subcultures have 4 main elements
What are the 4 elements Sugarman thinks WC subcultures have? Describe them
Fatalism - Can’t change it
Collectivism - Being part of a group is better than individual success
Immediate gratification - Go straight to low paying jobs
Present time orientation - seeing the present, not future so mess in class
AO3 - attitudes and values for cultural deprivation (3)
De Franja - MC kids have pushy parents
Blackstone and Mortimer - WC parents work long and irregular hours and they lack academic knowledge
Keddie - Child can’t be deprived of their own culture
Name the 3 main external theories for class
Cultural deprivation theory
Material deprivation theory
Cultural capital theory
What is the material deprivation theory?
Lack of material necessities such as housing.
3 sections of material deprivation theory
Hidden cost of education
Describe housing - material deprivation theory
Douglas thinks there is a link.
Not quiet, damp, cold, ect
Describe diet - material deprivation theory
Howard - a poor diet leads to poor educational performance and health -> poor attendance
Describe hidden cost of education - material deprivation theory
Bull - bus fare to school, laptop, stationary
AO3 - material deprivation theory (2)
Robinson - ending child poverty would be the most effective way to increase achievement
Never be equal - private school, buy extra resources
Who created the Cultural Capital Theory?
What is the Cultural Capital Theory?
Knowledge, attitudes and values of people
Give 4 examples of cultural capital
Museums / cultural trips
Cultural Capital Theory AO3 (3)
Sullivan - Complex fiction and tv documentaries - more likely to do better at GCSE
Robertson - Visit zoos, museums, theatre improve change of success
Not just external factor - also influence relationship with teacher
What is social capital?
Network and relationships of a person
What can cultural capital lead to?
The halo effect
What is the halo effect?
Viewed more positively as have ideal characteristics
Name 3 main sections of internal factors
Self fulfilling prophecy
Give 1 example of the labelling theory with a description
Hargreaves - sets and streams
Develop an anti-school subculture so labelled as a failure. (WC in low sets). Achieve status and success in eyes of students
Labelling theory AO3 (2)
Hollingworth and Williams - MC pupils don’t have one type of subculture (sporty, goth, hippie)
Mirza - Labelling of black female students. Reject their label and do better than expected
What is the self fulfilling prophecy?
A prediction that comes true by believing that it will.
Who did the experiment on the self fufilling prophecy?
Rosenthal and Jacobsen
What did Rosenthal and Jacobsen do? Effect?
Say that 5 random students were late bloomers and they did better in the end of year test.
What is the Pygmalion effect?
A higher expectation leads to increased academic performance.
AO3 - self fulfilling prophecy
Support effect of streaming - raise attainment in top grades but do worse in lower
What 2 words did Lacey use the concept of for subcultures? Define them
Differentiation - teacher categorises pupils based on ability, attitude and behaviour
Polarisation - Pupils respond to streaming by developing an anti-school subculture
AO3 - Subculture
Labelling alone can’t explain underachievement
What does Ball think about streaming?
Mixed ability groups prevents polarisation.