Order of how well different ethnicities do well at GCSE
Chinese (74%) Indian White British (56%) Afro-Caribbean (51%) Gypsy / Roma (12%)
Name the 4 external factors for ethnicity
Attitudes and values
How does cognitive development impact education?
Intellectual and linguistic skills are under developed
Linked to low income as have less money to spend on stimulating toys / activies
How does linguistic development impact education?
Bowker - Black American families lack standard English.
Accent, colloquial language
English not first language
Influence teacher labelling
AO3 - How does linguistic development impact education? (2)
Driver and Ballard - Asian children who speak a different language at home do just as well in English by 16 yrs old
The Swann Report - Language isn’t a major factor and still do well if not first language
Chinese and Indians do the best
How does attitudes and values of different ethnicities impact education? (3 people)
Black children - fatalistic way of thinking so de-value education
Driver and Ballard - Asian family structure brings educational benefits (positive attitude towards education)
Lupton - Expectations of Asian parent’s behaviour reflect on school as more supportive of school procedures and disciple
Evans - White people learn to withstand intimidation and intimidate others in schools and distract others.
AO3 - How does attitudes and values of different ethnicities impact education?
Khan - having a strict and rigorous family = highly stressful and controlled environment, especially for girls
How does the family structure of different ethnicities impact education? (3 people)
Moynihan - black families tend to be single parent and female headed and lack financial support and a male role model
Pryce - Absent of a male role model causes a turbulent family
Murray - inadequate socialisation and not taught correct values
AO3 - How does the family structure of different ethnicities impact education? (3)
Driver - Family has positive effects and black families teach girls to be strong and independent
Keddie - Victim blaming as culture is different, not deprived. Blame school system as ethnocentric
Archer and Francis - Family emphasis on education and educational success within Chinese families.
To attach a meaning of definition to someone
What did Gilborn and Youdell find about teacher labelling?
Teachers are quicker to discipline black pupils for the same behaviour as others
Expected to have more discipline problems and behaviour was misinterpreted as threatening
Stats to prove racial inequality in the USA.
Black students 4 time more likely to be suspended
Why are black students treated differently? (2 words)
What did Wright find about teacher labelling?
Teachers assumed Asian students had poor English so they spoke to them simply and left out of class discussions.
Name the internal factors for ethnic differences in education (4)
AO3 - Are teachers actually racist? (2)
Overly concerned with political correctness
Don’t want to offend the pupils
What is Connolly find about teacher labelling?
Asian pupils - obedient and hard working. Silly if misbehaved
Black pupils - a threat if misbehaved
5 people involved in teacher labelling (ethnicity)
Gibourn and Youdell
What is Taylor find about teacher labelling?
Teachers are sensitive to multicultural issues and concerned about developing a fair policy towards ethnic minorities
Who names the 4 categories black boys form after responding to racism?
What are the 4 categories pupils boys form after responding to racism?
Describe rebels (Sewell)
Excluded and reject goals and rules of school
Describe conformists (Sewell)
Keen to succeed and disconnected from both school and accept school’s goals
Describe retreatists (Sewell)
Very few people - disconnected from both school and subculture
Describe innovators (Sewell)
Pro-education but anti-school
What type of people did Mirza study?
Who studies black females?
What did Mirza discover? (2)
Teachers discouraged black girls to be ambitious
Selective in which teachers to ask advice from and did work on their own - failed strategy as limit options and fall behind
What did Fordham and Ogbu discover? (2)
Acting white - doing well in school
Acting black - fail and reject school so accepted by peers and have a respected status
Define material deprivation
Lack of physical or economic resources
Stats to prove material deprivations impacts BAME
15% of ethnic minorities live in overcrowding
Only 2% of white households
What did Flaherty find about material deprivation
Pakistani and Bangladeshi are 3 times more likely to b in poorest 1/5 of population
What does the Swann Report say about material deprivation? (AO2/AO3) (2)
Strongest predictor on doing well. Social class accounts for at least 50% of educational differences in achievement
How are cultural and social factors linked? (AO2/AO3)
Black families are headed by lone females so likely to be in poverty
What did Rex discover about racism? (3)
Racism discrimination leads to social exclusion
Worsen poverty so forced into standardised housing
Discrimination in employment.
What did Noon do?
Sent identical CV but Evans and Patel as the names. Evans got more responses
Name the 4 internal factors for ethnic differences
Teacher labelling Pupil subculture Ethnocentric curriculum Institutional racism Selection and segregation
Attitude or policy that gives priority to the culture and viewpoint of one particular ethnic group
Who describes the curriculum as ethnocentric?
Troyna and Williams
What did Troyna and Williams say about the curriculem?
Ethnocentric - gives priority to white culture. Ignore cultural diversity.
Troyna and Williams supporting research (ethnocentric)
Stone - multi-cultural education produces more ethnic stereotypes
What two types of racism did Troyna and Williams research? Define them
Individual racism -prejudice views of other pupils
Institutional racism - discrimination built into institutions
What does Hatcher say about racism?
Gives low priority to race issues and failed to deal with the behaviour. Limited communication between schools and BAME parents
3 examples of racism within schools
Gilborn - …………. has given schools more power to select pupils so ethnic minorities are at a disadvantage
What does Evans say (AO3)
Race isn’t only factor.
Black - focus on culture and ethnicity
White - focus on class for research
What % of people say they have some feeling of racial prejudice
What do post modernists say about cultures.
Not all the same and not as important in having a low-self esteem