Flashcards in 3.1 Flowers Deck (25)
What are Sepals?
Protection for the flower bud
Often green and photosynthetic
What are Petals?
Showy, attractive to wildlife - landing pad for bees
Sometimes modified to form NECTARIES at base of petals
What are Tepals?
When sepals and petals are very similar or indistinguishable
What is the Calyx?
A whorl of Sepals
What is the Corolla?
A whorl of Petals
What is the Androecium?
All the MALE reproductive structures
What is the Gynoecium?
All the FEMALE reproductive structures
What is a Stamen?
Male part made up from Filament and Anther
What is the Filament?
Male part - long stalk - holds the anther in best position to disperse pollen
What is the Anther?
Male part - on tip of filament that produces or contains pollen (male gamete)
What is the Carpel?
Female part - contains Ovary, Style, and Stigma
What is the Ovary?
Female part - contains Ovules. After fertilisation the Ovary wall forms the fruit.
What is the Style?
Female part - tube that leads to the Ovary - holds the stigma in the best position to receive pollen
What is the Stigma?
Female part - sticky receptive tissue on tip of Style - receives the Pollen
What are the Ovules?
Female part - inside the Ovary - go on to become seeds once fertilised.
What is the Receptacle?
This connects the stalk to all flower parts - goes on to become the "flesh" of the fruit in apples, pears and other members of the rose family.
What is the Pedicel?
The flower stalk - holds flower in best position for pollination and seed dispersal
What are the four Whorls of a flower?
1. Calyx (sepals)
2. Corolla (petals)
3. Androecium (male parts)
4. Gynoecium (female parts)
What does Monoecious mean?
A plant that has SEPARATE M/F structures on the same plant. (mono = same)
What does Dioecious mean?
A plant that has SEPARATE M/F structures on SEPARATE plants (dio = different)
State meaning of "Pollination"
The successful transfer of a plant's male reproductive cells (pollen) from their site of production (anther), to the receptive female tissue (stigma) on the tip of the style.
Characteristics of wind-pollinated plants (4):
Typically lack large petals and sepals - they are sometimes green or brown.
Stamens/anthers hang/dangle outside the flower to catch wind.
Stigmas often feathery with many lobes to catch pollen
Pollen may be smooth-surfaced or may have air bladders, lightweight, small, large quantities.
Characteristics of bee/insect-pollinated plants (4):
Typically showy, large, attractive petals
Other attractants such as scent and nectar guides and nectaries
Stamens large / anthers inside flower for insects to brush up against.
Pollen surface is rough
Meaning of the term, fertilisation:
The successful fusion of a male gamete (from pollen) with a female gamete (in the ovule) to form the embryo (or zygote)