3.2 Fruits & seeds Flashcards Preview

RHS Level 2 Module R2101 > 3.2 Fruits & seeds > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3.2 Fruits & seeds Deck (21)
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1

State the meaning of the term, "fruit"

A structure that develops from the ovary after fertilisation

Fruit contains the seed

2

State the meaning of the term, "seed"

A seed develops from the ovule after fertilisation

Seed contains the plant embryo

3

State the function of a fruit

Distribution and protection of the seed

May impose dormancy

4

State the function of a seed

Distribution and protection of the embryo

May impose dormancy

Gives rise to new plants

5

Describe the means by which seeds are dispersed (4)

Wind (samaras (winged seeds), parachute, censer)

Water

Explosive

Animals (attachment, scatter-hoarding, frugivory)

6

Describe the structure of a seed

Testa

Hilum

Micropyle

Endosperm

Embryo

7

What does the Embryo consist of?

Plumule

Epicotyl

Cotyledons

Hypocotyl

Radicle

Funicle

8

What is the testa?

The outer, protective coat of a seed.

Holds seed contents together.

9

What is the hilum?

The attachment scar where the ovule was attached to the ovary

10

What is the micropyle?

Small pore next to hilum – allows water and oxygen to enter seed to trigger germination

11

What is the endosperm?

Starchy food reserve

12

What is the embryo?

A young, developing plant inside a seed.

13

Embryo: What is the plumule?

The embryonic shoot

14

Embryo: What is the epicotyl?

The stretch of stem-like tissue above cotyledons

15

Embryo: What is the cotyledon?

The seed leaf or leaves (dicots have two, monocots have one)

Storage of starch for the developing embryo.

Allows photosynthesis in epigeal germination.

16

Embryo: What is the hypocotyl?

The short stretch of stem-like tissue below cotyledons

17

Embryo: What is the radicle?

The embryonic root

18

Embryo: What is the funicle

Connects the seed to the carpel wall

19

What is epigeal germination?

Cotyledons appear above the ground.

The hypocotyl elongates and drags the cotyledons above the surface of the soil

These plants typically have smaller cotyledons so deploy true leaves sooner to start photosynthesis

Testa shrivels up underground

e.g. Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean)

20

What is hypogeal germination?

Cotyledons remain below the ground.

(The epicotyl elongates and the cotyledons remain underground)

The cotyledons are typically large food stores that allow the plant to get a head start without photosynthesis

e.g. Vicia faba (Broad bean)

21

Name TWO mechanisms by which seeds are dispersed by wind:

A blade or wing which spins like a "helicopter" - flutters and spins to the ground

Parachutes with feathery appendages (drift on wind currents)