3.1.3.3 Coastal landscape And Development Flashcards Preview

Physical Geography - Coasts > 3.1.3.3 Coastal landscape And Development > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3.1.3.3 Coastal landscape And Development Deck (98)
Loading flashcards...
1

What are the inputs in the formation of a landform?

Coastal geology
Climate
Nature of the waves

2

What are the process of formation of a landform?

Erosion
Weathering
Deposition
Wave refraction
Sea level change

3

What are the outputs in the formation of a landform?

Sediment
Landform

4

On which type of coastline do headlands and bays form?

Discordant

5

Why is wave energy focused on headlands?

Wave refraction

6

Why are bays subject to deposition?

Due to the lower energy waves they recieve

7

What are the main landforms o erosion?

Headlands and bays
Cliffs and wave cut platforms
Caves arches and stacks

8

Where does a wave cut notch form?

Where destructive waves between the high and low tide lines at the foot of the cliff concentrate energy. So this rock faces more erosion and over time the cliff becomes undercut

9

What are characteristics of a wave cut platform?

Smooth and flat (5 degrees)

10

Why, over time, does the platform eventually cease to grow?

- the waves break further and further out
- wave energy is dissipated over a further distance
- rate of erosion decreases

11

What is usually the maximum width of a wave cut platform?

500m

12

Why is the formation of wave cut platforms a negative feedback loop?

Because over time the effects become less destructive due to the growth of the platform

13

Wat are cliff profile features?

Caves, arches and stacks

14

Where do caves, arches and stacks tend to form and why?

On headlands because wave refraction focuses wave energy of eroding the headlands

15

What is a geo?

A narrow, steep sided inlet opened up by hydraulic action

16

How is a cave formed?

Where the cracks or joints in a cliff becomes undercut by hydraulic action and abrasion

17

What is a blowhole?

When force from the waves hit the back of a cave with full force and enlarge joints in the cave roof. If overlying rocks are sufficiently weakened, they collapse

18

Why do caves often form in headlands?

because erosion is the strongest there

19

How is an arch formed?

When a cave breaks through the headland and opens through

20

What is a stack?

A tall rock formed when the roo of an arch collapses
Stands a lone from the headland

21

What is a stump?

The remainder of when the top of a stack is weathered and eventually collapses in stages

22

What are examples of cliff profile features?

Old Harry's Rocks in Dorset
Twelve Apostles in Victoria, Australia

23

What is a beach?

A temporary accumulation of sediment (store) within a sediment cell
LArgely formed of sand or shingle
Formed from material of offshore sand bars, longshore drift, wind loan sa from up coast ad ass movement

24

Where do beaches form?

Between the highest point reached by storm waves and lowest spring tides

25

Why do sand beaches typically have a gentle slope of around 5 degrees?

Because the grains are small and easily compacted therefor little water can percolate through so th majority of th water moving up the beach wil return throughbackwash which smooths and flattens the beach

26

Why are shingle beaches usually steep at 10-20 degrees?

Because the large sediment size means they are less compacted. Therefore water can percolate better and the back wash does not pick up a lot of material from the beach back into the sea. This creates a beach which is unlikely to be eroded

27

What is a swash aligned beach?

Generally parallel to oncoming wave crests
Experience minimal longshore drift
Found on irregular coastlines where longshore drift is impeded, waves hit sections of the coast head on

28

What is a drift aligned beach?

Oriented parallel to direction of longshore drift
Have considerable amounts of sediment transported long distances a long them
Develop where a coastline is fairly regular
Can extend out from the coast line if there is a sudden change in the direction of the coastline e.g. an estuary

29

What is a spit?

An elongated, narrow ridge of land that has one end joined to the mainland and projects out into the sea or across an estuary

30

On which sort of beach does a spit usually form?

Drift aligned