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Flashcards in Coastal Management Case Studies Deck (25)
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1

which of the 11 sediment cells is the Holderness Coast in>

2

2

outline the geology along the Holderness Coast

Flamborough head - chalk headland which is resistant but vertical crack/joints run through it making it vulnerable to weathering and erosional processes
most cliffs are made from boulder clay

3

what are the main inputs in sediment cell 2

sediment via longshore drift
mass movement of the cliffs

4

characteristics of cliffs on the holderness coast

weak and unconsolidated

5

what are the main factors that affect the holderness coast system

geology
wind power - NE winds with a long fetch from the north sea
wave energy

6

what land forms are associated with Flamborough head on the holderness coast

cliffs and wave cut platforms
caves stacks arches

7

how much has the coastline of the holderness coast retreated since Roman times

5km

8

what is the rate of erosion on the holderness coast

up to 10m a year
fastest eroding coastline in Europe

9

why are coastal defence along Spurn Head Spit no longer maintained?

groynes : they exacerbate long shore drift further down the coast, they are too expensive
since the Yorkshire Naturalist's Trust bought it they have been unable to afford maintenance

10

Where is the Sefton Coast?

Merseyside, North of Liverpool
stretches 12 miles between Southport and Waterloo

11

outline the need for coastal management at Sefton

sea level rise makes the coastline more vulnerable to erosion
protects ports and tourism industry
protects local specials

12

what local species would be protected at Sefton?

natterjack toads and red squirrels

13

what soft engineering management strategies have been used at Sefton

afforestation - planting xmas trees on the sea ward edge of dunes
signage and warnings along the beach

14

why is afforestation used at sefton? how is it sustainable?

encourages dune regeneration and provides a greener area

15

what sorts of signage and warnings are used at sefton?

fencing off certain areas
boardwalks
directions to the beach for visitors to follow
banning off road vehicles

16

what makes the use of signage and warnings at sefton sustainable?

protects the environment from human intervention that could damage the dunes
minimal costs make it economically viable
rarely needs maintaining

17

why have local authorities adopted soft engineering strategies at sefton?

to seek a sustainable and manageable future for future generations

18

where is morcambe and heysham?

Lancashire, nw england

19

how much of the morcambe coastline is protected by sea defences?

8.5km

20

how much was spent on coastal defneces at morcambe between 1989 and 2007?

£28 million

21

what are the five hard engineering strategies used at the morcambe/heysham coastline?

10 breakwaters/rock groynes using locally sourced limestone
rip rap
traditional re curved sea wall
500 gabions
concrete revetments

22

what are the main land uses at morcambe/heysham

Heysham nuclear power station
Heysham port
residential
retail
seaside tourise
hotels/guest houses
golf club

23

what evidence suggests the morcambe/heysham defence systems are sustainable to an extent

all limestone materials were sourced from quarries less than 10km away from the sites, reduces the carbon footprint
location of the breakwaters and groynes encourage beach formation and acts as a soft engineering strategy to reinforce the hard defences

24

what is Morcambe bay classified as?

a Site of Special Scientific interest (SSSI) and Special Area of Conservation (SAC)

25

why does Morcambe being classed as a SAC help it be sustainable?

because it helps protect and promot the growth of biodiversity in the coastal environtment