3.6.3. Respiratory System Regulation Flashcards Preview

CPR Week 6 > 3.6.3. Respiratory System Regulation > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3.6.3. Respiratory System Regulation Deck (27)
1

Hyperpnea? I believe this is usually called tachypnea...

Hyperpnea - increased breathing that matches metabolic needs (i.e. during exercise)

2

Brachypnea

Brachypnea - shortness of breath (dyspnea)

3

Hypoxia vs. Hypoxemia

Hypoxia vs. Hypoxemia - low tissue oxygenation vs. low blood oxygen (low paO2)

4

What and where is the CPG?

“central pattern generator” creates breathing cycle, with input from central chemoreceptors and sensory integrators; the specific site of the CPG is unknown

5

What are the 3 parameters that influence breathing?

Arterial levels of blood gases

position and stress on structural components

measured at the CNS and in peripheral positions via
central/peripheral chemoreceptors and mechanical (stretch) receptors

6

In 1812, the _____ was identified as essential for breathing

In 1812, the medulla was identified as essential for breathing

7

In 1923, the _____ was identified as necessary for breathing

In 1923, the pons was identified as necessary for breathing

8

2 parts to the Pons

Apneustic Center
Pneumotaxic center

9

Discuss the apneustic center of the pons

located in the lower pons
stimulates inspiration, producing a deep and prolonged inspiratory gasp (apneusis)

10

Discuss the pneumotaxic center of the Pons

located in the upper pons
inhibits inspiration, regulates respiratory volume and rate

11

2 parts of the medulla

Dorsal respiratory group (containing the nucleus of the solitary tract)

Ventral Respiratory group:

12

Discuss the signaling involved in the dorsal respiratory group of the medulla and the end result

recieves input from the thorax and abdomen regarding pO2 and pCO2 [via the vagus and glossopharyngeal n.]
communicate with pre motor neurons [via the phrenic n.]

Is primarily responsible for inspiration, generates the basic rhythm for breatihing

13

What is the ventral respiratory group responsible for and when is it active?

primarily responsible for expiration
not active during normal, quiet breathing; expiration is passive

is activated during exercise OR when expiration becomes and active process

14

What part of our breathing do we control and how?

voluntary control of breathing (i.e. breath holding)

15

In regards to CO2 or H+ responses by receptors, what types recognize these changes and which one is most important?

The response of peripheral chemoreceptors to CO2 is less important that the response of the central chemoreceptors for CO2 (or H+)

16

What does our body due in response to Hypercapnia, or increased paCO2?

activates the central medullary chemoreceptors and increases breathing rate (not as important as pH)
activates peripheral carotid and aortic bodies to increase breathing rate (more important than pH, but less than O2)

17

What is acidosis?

decreased pH

18

What is our body's response to acidosis?

activates the central medullary chemoreceptors and increases breathing rate
activates peripheral carotid and aortic bodies to increase breathing rate (least important stimulus)

19

What happens during hypoxia?

Only activates the peripheral carotid and aortic bodies; most important stimulus in peripheral system (if <60mmHg)

20

Discuss central control of breathing

sensitive to the pH of the CSF

decreased pH increases the breathing rate

CO2 diffuses from arterial blood across the BBB and causes the drop in pH (via carbonic anhydrase which yields H+ and HCO3-) which is measured directly by the medullary chemoreceptors

21

Where are the carotid bodies and what system of breathing control are they a part of?

Peripheral control and they are located at the bifurcation of the common carotid arteries

22

Where are the aortic bodies?

aortic bodies are located above and below the aortic arch

23

How do arotic bodies respond?

decreases in arterial O2 will stimulate the peripheral chemoreceptors to increase the breathing rate

this only occurs when pO2 is <60mmHg

increases in pCO2
stimulate chemoreceptors and increase breathing rate

24

Where are lung stretch receptors and what do they do?

located in the smooth muscle of the airways

are stimulated by lung distension

decrease breathing frequency (Hering-Breuer reflex)

25

Where are irritant receptors and what do they do?

located between airway epithelial cells

stimulated by foreign substances

26

Where are juxtacapillary receptors and what do they do?

located in the alveolar walls, close to cappilaries
engorgement of the capillaries (as seen in left heart failure) stimulates and causes rapid shallow breathing

27

What are joint and muscle receptors and what activates them?

activated by movement of the limbs

involved in the early stimulation of breathing during exercise