Flashcards in 3_8Minerals Deck (68):
What are the various salts of calcium?
1) carbonate 2) citrate 3) gluconate 4) chloride
What % elemental is CaCO3?
What % elemental is CaCitrate?
What % elemental is CaGluconate?
What calcium salts are available IV?
gluconate (4.65 mEq/g) and chloride (13.6 mEq/g)
What is the most abundant mineral in the body?
What are sources of calcium?
dairy, broccoli, salmon, fortified foods
What are the considerations for CaCO3?
take with food in divided doses; need acid
What are the considerations for CaCitrate?
no acid needed
What is the RDA for Ca?
1000 mg/day (1200 if > 70 or >50 and female)
What is the UL for calcium?
What is the blood concentration in hypercalcemia (severe)?
> 10 (>13) mg/dL
What are the symptoms of calcium deficiency?
What are the symptoms of hypercalcemia?
hyperPTHism, renal insufficiency, constipation, kidney stones
What are the various salt forms of Mg?
1) oxide, 2) chloride, 3) gluconate, 4) citrate, 5) hydroxide/MOM
What % elemental is Mg oxide?
60% but poorly absorbed
What % elemental is chloride?
What % elemental is gluconate?
What % elemental is citrate?
What are the considerations for the different salt forms of Mg?
gluconate and chloride are less likely to cause diarrhea
What is the RDA for Mg?
300 (women) - 400 (men) mg/day
What is the UL for Mg?
350 mg/day supplemental
What are the toxicity symptoms of Mg?
when > 1000: diarrhea, drowsiness, lethargy, weakness
What are the symptoms of Mg deficiency?
1) anorexia, 2) N/V, 3) fatigue/weakness, 4) numbness, tingling, cramps, 5) hypercalcemia if severe 6) arrhythmias and coronary spasm
What conditions can cause Mg deficiency?
1) malabsorption, 2) N/V/D, 3) diuretics, 4) diabetes
What are the sources of Mg?
green leafy veggies, nuts, seeds, beans, whole grains, meat, starches
What is the function of Mg?
cofactor: muscles/neurons/immune cells, sugar/pressure regulation
What are the macrominerals?
Ca, Mg, P, Cl, K
% elemental of FeSO4?
% elemental of Fe fumarate?
% elemental of Fe gluconate?
What are the various salt forms of Fe?
sulfate, fumarate, fluconate, polysaccharide-Fe
What are sources of iron?
heme-Fe: red meat, fish, poultry; non-heme-Fe: fruits/veggies, fortified foods
What percentage of dietary Fe is absorbed?
What is the function of iron?
Hb, cell growth, cell differentiation
Normal blood concentration of Fe?
50-160 mcg/dL for males, -10 for females
What are the considerations for Fe supplements?
1) GI upset, 2) sulfate requires acid
What advice for upset stomach with Fe supplement?
1) take with food (will decrease F), 2) divide doses and gradually increase dose
What is the RDA of Fe?
males = 8, females 18, pregnant =27 mg/day
What is the UL for iron?
What is the toxicity range for iron?
20-60 mg/kg/day ELEMENTAL Fe
What are the requirements for Fe child-resistant packaging?
30+ mg/tablet containers required to be child-resistant or unit-dose
What is the most common unintentional childhood OD?
What is the number 1 deficiency in the world?
What causes Fe deficiency?
dietary, absorption, blood loss, renal failure
What are the symptoms of Fe deficiency?
gradual anemia development; fatigue, intolerance to cold, infection
What is the dose of Fe for anemia?
50-60mg ELEMENTAL Fe / day
What are the symptoms of Fe toxicity?
early: N/V/D, ab pain; late: weakness, tachycardia, cyanosis, convulsions, coma
RDA for Zn?
8 (females) - 11 (males & pregnant/breastfeeding) mg/day
UL for Zn
Adverse effects/toxicity of Zn?
*anosmia from sprays*; n/v/d, ha, cramps
When in Zn deficient?
digestive disorder, vegetarian, alcoholic
What are sources of Zn?
oysters, seafood, red meat, fortified foods
What is the function of Zn?
wound healing, immune, protein/dna synthesis, smell taste
What is the function of Se?
antioxidant enzymes, immune & thryoid regulator
What are sources of Se?
plant foods, meat, seafood
What is the RDA for Se?
55 mcg/day (60 if pregnant, 70 if lactating)
What is the UL for Se?
What can cause Se toxicity?
industrial accidents and brazil nuts
What are the symptoms of Se toxicity?
1) loss of hair/nails, 2) nervous system abnormalities, 3) *garlic breath*
What are symptoms of Se deficiency?
muscle soreness, weak immune system, heart dz
When might Se deficiency occur?
rare - TPN, malabsorptive
What is the function of Cr?
enhanced insulin sensitivity, co-factor in energy metabolism
What are sources of Cr?
BEER, meat, poultry, fish, canned foods
What is the AI of Cr?
35 mcg/day (25 if female)
What is the UL of Cr?
What is the structure of dietary vs. toxic Cr?
dietary is Cr3+, toxic = Cr6+ from pollution