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Flashcards in 3_8Minerals Deck (68):
1

What are the various salts of calcium?

1) carbonate 2) citrate 3) gluconate 4) chloride

2

What % elemental is CaCO3?

40%

3

What % elemental is CaCitrate?

21%

4

What % elemental is CaGluconate?

9.30%

5

What calcium salts are available IV?

gluconate (4.65 mEq/g) and chloride (13.6 mEq/g)

6

What is the most abundant mineral in the body?

Calcium

7

What are sources of calcium?

dairy, broccoli, salmon, fortified foods

8

What are the considerations for CaCO3?

take with food in divided doses; need acid

9

What are the considerations for CaCitrate?

no acid needed

10

What is the RDA for Ca?

1000 mg/day (1200 if > 70 or >50 and female)

11

What is the UL for calcium?

2500 mg/day

12

What is the blood concentration in hypercalcemia (severe)?

> 10 (>13) mg/dL

13

What are the symptoms of calcium deficiency?

hypocalcemia

14

What are the symptoms of hypercalcemia?

hyperPTHism, renal insufficiency, constipation, kidney stones

15

What are the various salt forms of Mg?

1) oxide, 2) chloride, 3) gluconate, 4) citrate, 5) hydroxide/MOM

16

What % elemental is Mg oxide?

60% but poorly absorbed

17

What % elemental is chloride?

12%

18

What % elemental is gluconate?

6%

19

What % elemental is citrate?

16%

20

What are the considerations for the different salt forms of Mg?

gluconate and chloride are less likely to cause diarrhea

21

What is the RDA for Mg?

300 (women) - 400 (men) mg/day

22

What is the UL for Mg?

350 mg/day supplemental

23

What are the toxicity symptoms of Mg?

when > 1000: diarrhea, drowsiness, lethargy, weakness

24

What are the symptoms of Mg deficiency?

1) anorexia, 2) N/V, 3) fatigue/weakness, 4) numbness, tingling, cramps, 5) hypercalcemia if severe 6) arrhythmias and coronary spasm

25

What conditions can cause Mg deficiency?

1) malabsorption, 2) N/V/D, 3) diuretics, 4) diabetes

26

What are the sources of Mg?

green leafy veggies, nuts, seeds, beans, whole grains, meat, starches

27

What is the function of Mg?

cofactor: muscles/neurons/immune cells, sugar/pressure regulation

28

What are the macrominerals?

Ca, Mg, P, Cl, K

29

% elemental of FeSO4?

20% elemental

30

% elemental of Fe fumarate?

33%

31

% elemental of Fe gluconate?

12%

32

What are the various salt forms of Fe?

sulfate, fumarate, fluconate, polysaccharide-Fe

33

What are sources of iron?

heme-Fe: red meat, fish, poultry; non-heme-Fe: fruits/veggies, fortified foods

34

What percentage of dietary Fe is absorbed?

10-15%

35

What is the function of iron?

Hb, cell growth, cell differentiation

36

Normal blood concentration of Fe?

50-160 mcg/dL for males, -10 for females

37

What are the considerations for Fe supplements?

1) GI upset, 2) sulfate requires acid

38

What advice for upset stomach with Fe supplement?

1) take with food (will decrease F), 2) divide doses and gradually increase dose

39

What is the RDA of Fe?

males = 8, females 18, pregnant =27 mg/day

40

What is the UL for iron?

45 mg/day

41

What is the toxicity range for iron?

20-60 mg/kg/day ELEMENTAL Fe

42

What are the requirements for Fe child-resistant packaging?

30+ mg/tablet containers required to be child-resistant or unit-dose

43

What is the most common unintentional childhood OD?

Fe

44

What is the number 1 deficiency in the world?

Fe

45

What causes Fe deficiency?

dietary, absorption, blood loss, renal failure

46

What are the symptoms of Fe deficiency?

gradual anemia development; fatigue, intolerance to cold, infection

47

What is the dose of Fe for anemia?

50-60mg ELEMENTAL Fe / day

48

What are the symptoms of Fe toxicity?

early: N/V/D, ab pain; late: weakness, tachycardia, cyanosis, convulsions, coma

49

RDA for Zn?

8 (females) - 11 (males & pregnant/breastfeeding) mg/day

50

UL for Zn

40 mg/day

51

Adverse effects/toxicity of Zn?

*anosmia from sprays*; n/v/d, ha, cramps

52

When in Zn deficient?

digestive disorder, vegetarian, alcoholic

53

What are sources of Zn?

oysters, seafood, red meat, fortified foods

54

What is the function of Zn?

wound healing, immune, protein/dna synthesis, smell taste

55

What is the function of Se?

antioxidant enzymes, immune & thryoid regulator

56

What are sources of Se?

plant foods, meat, seafood

57

What is the RDA for Se?

55 mcg/day (60 if pregnant, 70 if lactating)

58

What is the UL for Se?

400 mcg/day

59

What can cause Se toxicity?

industrial accidents and brazil nuts

60

What are the symptoms of Se toxicity?

1) loss of hair/nails, 2) nervous system abnormalities, 3) *garlic breath*

61

What are symptoms of Se deficiency?

muscle soreness, weak immune system, heart dz

62

When might Se deficiency occur?

rare - TPN, malabsorptive

63

What is the function of Cr?

enhanced insulin sensitivity, co-factor in energy metabolism

64

What are sources of Cr?

BEER, meat, poultry, fish, canned foods

65

What is the AI of Cr?

35 mcg/day (25 if female)

66

What is the UL of Cr?

none

67

What is the structure of dietary vs. toxic Cr?

dietary is Cr3+, toxic = Cr6+ from pollution

68

What are the micronutrients?

Fe, Se, Cr, Zn, F, I, Mn, Mb, Cu