4.1.3 Attachment Flashcards Preview

A level Psychology > 4.1.3 Attachment > Flashcards

Flashcards in 4.1.3 Attachment Deck (152)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q

What is an attachment?

A
  1. Emotional tie or bond between 2 people
  2. Relationship is reciprocal (shared) = two-way relationship
2
Q

What is reciprocity?

A
  • Actions of one person elicits a response from other & vice versa
  • Interactions flow back and forth
3
Q

Describe reciprocity between infants and carers

A
  • Results in mutual behaviour where both parties are able to generate a response
  • Interactions facilitate and strengthen the attachment bond
4
Q

Describe a study that supports reciprocity occuring between infants and carers

A

Tronick et al. (1979)

  • Mothers, who were engaged in dialogue with their babies, were told to stop moving & remain static
  • Babies → puzzled and distressed when their smiles = didn’t provoke reciprocal response
  • Highlights how babies engage & anticipate reciprocal responses to their own behaviour
5
Q

What is interactional synchrony?

A

When infants imitate actions or emotions from an adult model

e.g. facial expressions, hand gestures

6
Q

Name a study that supports interactional synchrony

A

Meltzoff and Moore (1977)

7
Q

Interactional Synchrony: Meltzoff and Moore (1977)

What was their aim?

A

Examine interactional synchrony

8
Q

Interactional Synchrony: Meltzoff and Moore (1977)

Describe their method

A
  • Using controlled observation, adult model displayed 3 facial expression or hand gestures
    • 1st baby had dummy in their mouth = prevent facial response
    • 2nd display from adult = dummy was removed & child’s expression was filmed
9
Q

Interactional Synchrony: Meltzoff and Moore (1977)

What was their conclusion?

A

Interactional synchrony = innate & reduces claim that imitative behaviour is learned

10
Q

Name one postive evaluation point about caregiver-infant interactions

A

Pratical Application

11
Q

Caregiver-Infant Interactions

Elaborate on the postive evaluation point: Pratical Application

A
  • Mothers can be placed in same rooms with their children instantly
  • So they form attachment bonds unlike previous practice where they were kept separated
12
Q

Name 3 negative evaluation points about caregiver-infant interactions

A
  • Lacks validity
  • Overlooks individual differences
  • Lacks reliability
13
Q

Caregiver-Infant Interactions

Elaborate on the negative evaluation point: Lacks validity

A
  • Testing infant behaviour difficult ∵ facial expressions = continuously changing
  • Meltzoff & Moore study may lack validity - expressions (e.g. sticking their tongue out) = constantly in young babies
  • ∴ it’s difficult to distinguish between general behaviour and actual interactional synchrony
14
Q

Caregiver-Infant Interactions

Elaborate on the negative evaluation point: Lacks reliability

A
  • Successive attempts to replicate findings in Meltzoff & Moore’s study have failed
  • e.g. Koepke et al (1983) = unable to recreate same finings
  • One weakness claimed by Meltzoff and Moore was their study lacked control and thus had ecological validity
15
Q

Caregiver-Infant Interactions

Elaborate on the negative evaluation point: Overlooks individual differences

A
  • Recent research shows only securely attached infants engage in interactional synchrony
    • e.g. Isabella et al. (1989): more securely attached the infant = greater level of interactional synchrony
  • Suggests not all children engage in interactional synchrony
  • & Meltzoff and Moore = findings may have overlooked individuals differences = could be mediating factor
16
Q

Name the 4 stages of attachment

A
  1. Asocial
  2. Indiscriminate Attachments
  3. Discriminate (Specific) Attachments
  4. Multiple Attachments
17
Q

Describe the asocial stage

A

From birth to 2 months

  • Infant shows same responses to objects and people
  • End of stage = bias towards human stimuli - preferences for faces and eyes
  • & can distinguish between peoples voices and smells with reciprocity and interactional synchrony evident in relationships
18
Q

Describe the indiscriminate attachments stage

A

From 2 to 6 months

  • More sociable = show preference for human company over inanimate objects
  • Can distinguish between different people but are comforted indiscriminately (by anyone)
  • (Don’t show stranger anxiety)
19
Q

Describe the discriminate attachments stage

A

From 7 to 12 months

  • Infant show preference for one caregivers = displays separation and stranger anxiety
  • Infant looks to particular person for security and protection
  • Show joy and relief upon reunion by primary caregiver
20
Q

Describe the multiple attachments stage

A

One year onwards

Attachment behaviours = displayed towards several different people (e.g. siblings, grandparents) AKA secondary attachments formed

21
Q

State the aim of Schaffer and Emerson’s (1964) study

A

Examine formation of early attachments

22
Q

State the method of Schaffer and Emerson’s (1964) study

A
  • Studied 60 babies from working class families in Glasgow aged 5-23 weeks until 1 years old & once again at 18 months
  • Researchers visited mothers every month to report their child’s response to separation
    • Intensity separation anxiety was recored on 4 point scale
23
Q

State the results of Schaffer and Emerson’s (1964) study

A
  • Provided some support for different stages of developing an attachment around 25-32 weeks
  • 50% of children showed separation anxiety towards their mothers
  • By 40 weeks - 80% of children had specific attachment & 30% formed multiple attachments
24
Q

State the conclusion of Schaffer and Emerson’s (1964) study

A

Results provide some support for Schaffer’s stages of attachment

25
Q

Name one postive evaluation point about Schaffer’s stages of attachment

A

High external validity

26
Q

Name 2 negative evaluation point about Schaffer’s stages of attachment

A
  • Lacks population validity
  • Social desirability basis
27
Q

Schaffer’s Stages of Attachment

Elaborate on the postitive evaluation point: High external validity

A
  • Observations conducted in each child’s own home
  • = children and parents more likely to act naturally
  • Results can be apply to children from similar demographic
28
Q

Schaffer’s Stages of Attachment

Elaborate on the negative evaluation point: Lacks population validity

A
  1. Based on 60 working class mothers and babies from Glasgow in 1960s
    1. Who may form different attachments compared to wealthier families form other countries
    2. ∴ can’t generalise results to other social groups or cultures as behaviour might not be comparable
  2. Conducted in 1960 = lack validity to modern day
    1. Caring practices changed a lot + education and employability of mothers
    2. Many infants now in care of nursery settings or with fathers who stay home/are primary caregiver
    3. Study repeated today = findings may be unreliable and different
29
Q

Schaffer’s Stages of Attachment

Elaborate on the negative evaluation point: Social desirability basis

A
  • Mother reported their infant interactions = biased, display themselves in positive light
    • e.g. some may been less responsive to infants needs = less likely to report it
  • & others may have told what they thought researchers wanted ∵ demand characteristics
  • ∴ bias in data = reduce internal validity of finings ∵ natural behaviour ≠ recorded
30
Q

Name 4 points about the role of the father (AO1)

A
  • Playmate opposed to caregiver
  • Traditionally: fathers ≠ primary attachment figures
  • Fathers not psychologically equipped to form close bonds
  • Role of father has changed now
31
Q

The Role of the Father

Elaborate on point: Playmate opposed to caregiver

A
  • Encourage problem solving through placing cognitive demands
  • Lack of sensitivity from fathers = encourages this type of behaviour
32
Q

The Role of the Father

Elaborate on point: Traditionally - fathers ≠ primary attachment figures

A

Played secondary attachment roles

  • ∵ playing traditional roles as bread earner and mothers stay home establishing closer bonds
  • Gender stereotypes affect role of father = seen as feminine to be sensitive needs of children
33
Q

The Role of the Father

Elaborate on point: Fathers not psychologically equipped to form close bonds unlike mother

A
  • Lack emotional sensitivity required
  • Females produce oestrogen = promotes caring behaviour and sensitivity while males don’t
34
Q

Name 4 factors affecting the attachment between father and infant

A
  1. Degree of sensitivity
  2. Marital intimacy
  3. Type of attachment with own parents
  4. Supportive co-parenting
35
Q

Name 4 evaluation points about the role of the father (AO3)

A
  • Playmate
  • Secure attachments with fathers
  • Weaknesses of studies into fathers’ role
  • Martial intimacy
36
Q

The Role of the Father

Elaborate on evolution point: Playmate

A
  • Lamb (1987): children preferred interacting with their fathers but only in positive state & wanting to stimulated
  • Mothers were sought for comfort when distressed
  • Supports idea father = playmates VS mothers = emotional support
37
Q

The Role of the Father

Elaborate on evolution point: Secure attachments with fathers

A
  • Positive role of father affects development of child
  • Secure attachments with fathers = better relationships with peers & less problematic behaviours
  • Children without father figures = do less academically well with higher levels of risk taking behaviour and aggression
38
Q

The Role of the Father

Elaborate on evolution point: Weaknesses of studies into fathers’ role

A
  1. Focused on single mothers from poor backgrounds
    • Higher levels of aggression and poor academic performance ∵ of social economic standing not absence of father
  2. Based on correlational research
    1. Cannot establish cause and effect between fathers relationship and problematic behaviour observed in children
    2. Confounding variables might have affected their development (e.g. being bullied)
39
Q

The Role of the Father

Elaborate on evolution point: Martial intimacy

A
  • Fathers can display sensitive responsiveness required with children
  • Belsky et al (2009) found high levels of martial intimacy correlated positively with secure father-infant interactions
    • Relationship between fathers and mother = affects attachment type of father with child
  • But data correlational - secure father-infant relationships = greater martial intimacy
40
Q

What was the aim of Lorenz’s (1935) study?

A

Examine imprinting in non-human animals

41
Q

Define imprinting

A

Where offspring follows & forms an attachment bond to 1st large moving object they see

42
Q

Describe the method of Lorenz’s (1935) study

A
  1. Randomly divided greylag goose eggs into 2 batches
    1. 1st batch - control group - hatched naturally by mother
    2. 2nd batch - experimental group - placed incubator & Lorenz was 1st large moving object they saw
  2. Following behaviour, of either mother goose or Lorenz, was recorded
  3. Lorenz marked gooslings & placed them under upside-down box
  4. Box removed, following behaviour recorded again
43
Q

Describe the 5 findings of Lorenz’s (1935) study

A
  1. Straight after birth, naturally-hatched goslings followed their mother goose VS incubator-hatched goslings followed Lorenz
  2. Same thing happened when box was removed
  3. Imprinting only occurred within critical period of 4-25 hours after hatching
  4. Relationship persisted over time & was irreversible
  5. Found that birds imprinted on humans would later in life attempts to mate with humans
    • Imprinting has impact on mate preference
44
Q

Name 2 +ve evaluation points about Lorenz’s study

A
  • Study has reliability
  • Practical real world applications
45
Q

Name 2 -ve evaluation points about Lorenz’s study

A
  • Cannot fully generalise results to humans
  • Imprinting may not be irreversible
46
Q

Lorenz’s study

Elaborate on the +ve evaluation point: Study has reliability

A
  • Numerous studies have replicated Lorenz’s work & found similar results
  • e.g. Gulton (1966) leghorn chicks that were exposed to yellow rubber glove became imprinted on them
  • Supports view that young bird are innately predisposed to attach to 1st moving object they see
  • Chicks then try to mate with gloves - supports Lorenz’s findings that if affect sexual behaviour
47
Q

Lorenz’s study

Elaborate on the +ve evaluation point: Practical real world applications

A
  • e.g. imprinting migratory birds to microlight aircrafts to teach them migratory flight paths
    • been used successfully to reintroduce birds to areas where they have become extinct
48
Q

Lorenz’s study

Elaborate on the -ve evaluation point: Imprinting may not be irreversible

A
  • Gulton (1966) found that chickens who had imprinted themselves to yellow gloves and tried to mate with them
  • Would later mate with other chickens provided they had spent enough time with them
  • Suggests imprinting may have learned element too & not be completely biological
49
Q

Lorenz’s study

Elaborate on the -ve evaluation point: Cannot fully generalise results to humans

A
  • Studied non-human animals - greylag geese - can’t conclude humans attach in the same way
  • Attachment formation in mammals = very different to bird species
    • e.g. mothers show more emotional reactions to offspring & can form attachments beyond 1st few hours after birth
  • Lorenz’s findings = greatly influenced understanding of development and attachment formation
    • BUT be wary about drawing wider conclusions about results
50
Q

Describe the aim of Harlow’s (1959) study

A

Examine extent to which contact comfort and food influences attachment behaviour in baby rhesus monkeys

51
Q

Describe the method of Harlow’s (1959) study

A
  1. Baby rheus monkeys were separated from their mothers and raised in isolation cages exposed to 2 surrogate mothers
    1. Soft ‘towelling mother’
    2. Harsh ‘wire mother’
  2. 8 monkeys exposed to either mum having milk bottle
  3. Measurements made through observations on…
    1. amount of time monkeys spent with each mother
    2. their responses when frightened (by e.g. mechanical bear)
    3. or when placed in large cage
52
Q

Describe the findings of Harlow’s (1959) study

A
  1. All monkeys spent majority of time with ‘towelling mother’
  2. When frightened, clung onto ‘towelling mother’ for reassurance
  3. Monkeys with ‘wire mother’ = distress, diarrhoea
  4. In large cage: greater exploration behaviour seen by monkeys with ‘towelling mother’ → shows emotional security
53
Q

Describe the conclusion of Harlow’s (1959) study (3x)

A
  • Baby rhesus monkeys have innate drive to seek contact comfort from parent
    • Form attachment with person giving contact comfort > food
  • Contact comfort = higher willingness to explore surroundings and lower levels of stress
54
Q

Name 2 +ve evaluation points about Harlow’s study

A
  • Real-World Applications
  • Supported by Schaffer’s stages of attachments
55
Q

Name 2 -ve evaluation points about Harlow’s study

A
  • Unethical
  • Lacks external validity and generalisation to human population
56
Q

Harlow’s study

Elaborate on the +ve evaluation point: Real-World Applications

A
  • e.g. Howe (1998) reports knowledge gained from Harlow = helped social workers understand risk factors in neglect and abuse with human children
    • Can prevent it from occurring/recognise when to intervene
  • e.g. care of captive wild monkeys in zoos or breeding programs = ensure they have adequate attachment figures
57
Q

Harlow’s study

Elaborate on the +ve evaluation point: Supported by Schaffer’s stages of attachments

A
  • Infants attached to those sensitive to their needs NOT those who feed them
  • ‘Towelling mother’ provided contact + comfort and thus sensitivity to monkeys needs during times of distress
58
Q

Harlow’s study

Elaborate on the -ve evaluation point: Unethical

A
  1. Experienced distress from being separated from biological mother at early age
  2. & subjected to intentional emotional harm thorough fear tactics to observe their behaviour
  3. Long negative lasting effects: struggled to form relationships with peers
  4. So unethical that American animal liberation movement was born
    1. Questions how far animal research can go in name of science
59
Q

Harlow’s study

Elaborate on the -ve evaluation point: Lacks external validity and generalisation to human population

A
  • Studied monkeys’ attachment behaviour
  • May not be representative of human behaviour ∵ different species + humans have greater conscious awareness in their decisions
  • However, monkeys share approx 94% of our genetics - findings could have validity in humans to some degree
60
Q

Describe the learning theory

A

Infants learn to become attached to their primary caregiver via classical conditioning & operant conditioning

61
Q

Describe how infants form an attachment with their primary caregiver through classical conditioning

A
  1. Before conditioning:
    1. Food = UCS → Relief from hunger/pleasure = UCR
    2. Caregiver = NS → no conditioned response from child
  2. During conditioning:
    1. Child associates caregiver who seeks them (NS) with food (UCS)
  3. After conditioning (through repeated pairings):
    1. Caregiver = CS, associated with pleasure from feeding (UCR)
    2. Results: caregiver elicits CR (relief from hunger) from child & formation of attachment
62
Q

Describe how infants form an attachment with their primary caregiver through operant conditioning

A
  1. Infant = hungry → has drive to reduce discomfort ∴ cries
  2. Caregiver provides food = feeling of pleasure produced = reward → positive reinforcement ∴ behaviour repeated
  3. Reinforcement is reciprocal process ∵ negative reinforcement occurs: caregiver repeats caregiving behaviour to avoid infant from prolonged crying
  4. Hunger = primary drive & food = primary reinforcer
  5. Caregiver who provides food = secondary reinforcer & attachment = secondary drive → will occur ∵ infant seeks person who can provide the reward
63
Q

Name 1 +ve evaluation points about the learning theory

A

Supported by Emerson et al

64
Q

Name 3 -ve evaluation points about the learning theory

A
  • Harlow
  • Lorenz
  • Methodological issues
65
Q

Learning Theory

Elaborate on the +ve evaluation point: Supported by Emerson et al

A
  • Studied 60 babies over 18 months
  • Attachment most likely to form with those who were most sensitive and responsive to child’s needs (through attention and feeding) ∵ this would be most rewarding
66
Q

Learning Theory

Elaborate on the -ve evaluation point: Undermined by Harlow’s research

A
  • Behaviorists would predict monkeys spend more time with wire mother, with food & means to remove hunger
  • BUT found that baby rhesus monkeys spent more time with cloth mother than wire mother
    • Shows baby monkeys don’t form attachments based on food and prefer contact comfort
67
Q

Learning Theory

Elaborate on the -ve evaluation point: Refuted by Lorenz’s Research

A
  • Found upon hatching, baby geese imprinted on the first moving object they saw
  • Shows that non-human animals demonstrate some innate attachment behaviours to aid survival
  • Contradicts idea that we ‘learn’ to attach to caregiver ∵ they feed us
68
Q

Learning Theory

Elaborate on the -ve evaluation point: Methodological issues with research evidence for learning theory

A
  • Supporting research criticised for over-reliance on animals
  • Behaviourists explanations provide oversimplified account of attachment formation, it’s a complex emotional bond between infant and caregiver
  • Learning theory = lack validity ∵ it’s difficult to generalise animal findings to humans with confidence that they’ll behave in the same way
69
Q

Describe Bowlby’s Theory of Attachment (briefly)

A
  • Bowlby’s monotropic theory takes an evolutionary perspective
  • Argued that children are born with innate tendency to from attachments with their parents to increase chances of survival
70
Q

State the mnemonic for Bowlby’s theory of attachment

A
  1. A (Adaptive)
  2. Snap (Social Releasers)
  3. Chat (Critical Period)
  4. Makes (Monotropy)
  5. Images (Internal Working Model)
71
Q

Describe Bowlby’s theory of attachment using the mnemonic: Adaptive

A

Attachments are adaptive = makes them more likely to survive

72
Q

Describe Bowlby’s theory of attachment using the mnemonic: Social Releasers

A
  1. Infants possess social releasers = elicit caregiving & facilitates interactive + innate two-way relationship between baby and caregiver
    1. Physical: Big eyes, button nose = features that make babies appear cute
    2. Behavioural: Crying, cooing and smiling to get attention
73
Q

Describe Bowlby’s theory of attachment using the mnemonic: Critical Period

A
  1. Infants must form attachments with caregiver during critical period: 3-6 months
  2. Forming attachments → more difficult after this period
  3. Attachment not formed during this period = child damaged for life - socially, emotionally, intellectually and physically
74
Q

Describe Bowlby’s theory of attachment using the mnemonic: Monotropy

A
  1. Infants form one special attachment with their primary caregiver
  2. This intense attachment is called monotropy
75
Q

Describe Bowlby’s theory of attachment using the mnemonic: Internal Working Model

A
  1. Through monotropic attachment - infant would form an internal working model → template for future relationship expectations
    1. If child has strong healthy attachment = strong and healthy relationships in later life
    2. If child has negative relationship = have negative social and romantic relationships in later life
76
Q

Name 2 +ve evaluation points about the Bowlby’s theory of attachment

A
  • Hazan and Shaver (1987) - “The Love Quiz”
  • Support from Lorenz
77
Q

Name 2 -ve evaluation points about the Bowlby’s theory of attachment

A
  • Schaffer and Emerson (1964)
  • Koluchova twins
78
Q

Bowlby’s Theory of Attachment

Elaborate on the +ve evaluation point: Hazan and Shaver (1987) - “The Love Quiz”

A
  • Used questionnaire to assess internal working model
  • Positive correlation between early attachment types and later adult relationships
    • Supports internal working model
79
Q

Bowlby’s Theory of Attachment

Elaborate on the +ve evaluation point: Support from Lorenz

A
  • Geese separated from their natural mothers would imprint & form attachment towards him or the 1st moving object they saw
  • Occurred during a critical period
  • Supports idea that there’s an innate drive in animals to form attachments, as this increases survival
80
Q

Bowlby’s Theory of Attachment

Elaborate on the -ve evaluation point: Schaffer and Emerson (1964)

A
  • Refute idea that infants must form one special attachment to their caregiver
  • Found that infants can form multiple attachments with different caregivers at the same time
    • By 40 weeks, 30% formed multiple attachments
81
Q

Bowlby’s Theory of Attachment

Elaborate on the -ve evaluation point: Koluchova twins

A
  1. Disproves the need of critical period to form attachments
  2. 2 boys raised in isolation beyond critical period & once rescued → through efforts of their adoptive mothers, showed no signs of abnormal behaviour at 14
  3. Formed close attachments to mothers and had stable relationships in adulthood
  4. Highlights that role of “nurture” can be mitigating factor for children who don’t form attachments during critical period
  5. Real world practical application - suggests that children in foster care can lead normal lives
82
Q

What did Ainsworth’s strange situation assess?

A

Made to assess how securely attached infants (9-18 months) were to their caregivers

83
Q

Describe Ainsworth’s strange situation

A
  • Placed infants in conditions of mild stress in unfamiliar settings to observe 4 different types of behaviour
    • Separation anxiety, stranger anxiety, willingness to explore & reunion behaviour with caregiver
    • 8 episodes lasting 3 minutes
84
Q

Name the 3 types of attachments that Ainsworth identified from the study

A
  • Insecure-Resistant
  • Secure Attachment
  • Insecure-Avoidant
85
Q

What was the percentage of infants that were insecure-resistant?

A

12%

86
Q

What was the percentage of infants that were securely attached?

A

66%

87
Q

What was the percentage of infants that were insecure-avoidant?

A

22%

88
Q

Describe the results of insecure-resistant infants

A
  1. Infant doesn’t explore = clings to mother
  2. High separation anxiety (extremely distressed/violent)
  3. High stranger anxiety
  4. Infant not easily comforted by mother - seeks but resists attempts of mother’s comfort on reunion
89
Q

Describe the results of securely attached infants

A
  1. Infant explores unfamiliar environment but return to mother to use her safe-base
  2. Moderate separation anxiety
  3. Moderate stranger anxiety
  4. Infant is happy/soothed when reunited with caregiver & seeks proximity
90
Q

Describe the results of insecure-avoidant infants

A
  1. Infant explores but doesn’t return to mother/use her as safe base
  2. Low separation anxiety (not concerned when mother leaves)
  3. Low stranger anxiety - shows little preference between mother and stranger
  4. Shows little reaction upon mother returning/ignores her + avoids intimacy
91
Q

Name 2 +ve evaluation points about the Ainsworth’s strange situation

A
  • High Reliability
  • Real World Applications
92
Q

Name 2 -ve evaluation points about the Ainsworth’s strange situation

A
  • Classification System of Attachment Types is Incomplete
  • Lacks Internal Validity
93
Q

Ainsworth’s Strange Situation

Elaborate on the +ve evaluation point: High Reliability

A
  • Observations took place under strict and controlled methods using predetermined behavioural categories
    • Several observers - agreement on attachment classifications could be ensured
      • Ainsworth found 94% agreement between observers ∴ inter-observer reliability = high
    • Allows researchers to replicate study to test reliability of findings
      • & for extraneous variable to be controlled
94
Q

Ainsworth’s Strange Situation

Elaborate on the +ve evaluation point: Real World Applications

A
  • Help improve relationships between children and caregivers
    • = more successful secure relationship in adulthood
  • Intervention strategies e.g. Circle of security projects (Cooper et al 2005) teaches caregivers to be responsive to distress signals infant
    • Study found those classed as disordered decreased from 60% to 15%
    • & those classed as securely attached increased from 32% to 40%
    • Attachment research = used to improve lives of children & parenting skills
95
Q

Ainsworth’s Strange Situation

Elaborate on the -ve evaluation point: Classification System of Attachment Types is Incomplete

A
  • Main and Solomon (1986) found 4th attachment type = insecure-disorganised (type D)
    • Observed 200+ strange situation recordings & found some infants displayed inconsistent patterns of behaviour
    • Van Ijzendoorn et al. (1999) found 15% of infants were type D - from meta-analysis of studies from US
  • ∴ Ainsworth’s research didn’t offer complete explanation to attachment & how/why these differences in attachments form
96
Q

Ainsworth’s Strange Situation

Elaborate on the -ve evaluation point: Lacks Internal Validity

A
  • Measured relationship type with 1 of primary attachment figures = usually mother
    • If child more attached to father = study wrongly assumed children may be closer to mother
    • ∴ study lacks internal validity = may not be measuring attachment styles with primary caregiver = skewing results
  • Parents knew they were being observed = demand characteristics
    • Mothers may been overly affectionate = believed it was demanded of them
    • = alters children’s behaviour = lowers internal validity
97
Q

Who studied cultural variations in attachments?

A

Van Ijzendoorn & Kroonenberg (1988)

98
Q

What was Van Ijzendoorn & Kroonenberg’s (1988) aim?

A

To investigate cross-cultural variations in attachment

99
Q

What was Van Ijzendoorn & Kroonenberg’s (1988) method?

A
  • Meta-analysis of 32 studies from 8 different countries that used Ainworth’s strange situation
  • Included around 2000 infants
100
Q

What were Van Ijzendoorn & Kroonenberg’s (1988) results?

A
  1. Found little differences between cultures
    1. Secure attachment = most common type of attachment
  2. Japan (collectivist culture) = higher levels of insecure-resistant attachment (27%)
  3. Germany (individualistic culture) = higher levels of insecure-avoidant (35%)
  4. Found variation and differences within cultures was 1.5 times higher than variations between cultures
101
Q

What were Van Ijzendoorn & Kroonenberg’s (1988) conclusions? (3x)

A
  1. Secure attachment = global pattern & not limited to western cultures (e.g. US)
  2. Supports argument that secure attachment is optimal attachment type for healthy development
  3. Supports view that attachment is an innate biological process, aids survival, ∵ it was seen worldwide
102
Q

Who studied cultural similarities?

A

Tronick et al. (1992)

103
Q

Describe Tronick et al. (1992)’s study

A
  1. Efe tribe, located in Zaire, Africa, live extended family groups
  2. Infants are looked after and breastfed by different women within social group
  3. Infants tend to sleep with mother at night
  4. Infants showed preference for primary attachment figure at 6 months
  5. Supports Van Ijzendoorn & Kroonenberg’s main findings that secure attachment is most common globally
104
Q

Who studied cultural differences?

A

Grossman and Grossman (1991)

105
Q

Describe Grossman and Grossman’s (1991) study

A
  • In German culture, child rearing practices favour independence from young age, where infants don’t seek interpersonal contact with parents
  • ∴ infants tend to appear insecurely attached in Ainworth’s strange situation as they don’t seek proximity to their mothers
106
Q

Name 3 evaluation points about van Ijzendoorn & Kroonenberg (1988)

A
  1. Imposed etic
  2. Biased Sample
  3. Criticised for comparing countries not cultures
107
Q

van Ijzendoorn & Kroonenberg (1988)

Elaborate on the evaluation point: Imposed etic

A
  1. Based on western cultural values may not translate into same meaning in other cultures/countries
    1. e.g. Ainsworth’s research was assumed that children who were willing to explore = “securely attached” based on western values
    2. However, dependence encouraged in Japanese culture as form of secure attachment so ∴ limits such behaviour and translates incorrectly in Ainsworth’s strange situation
    3. = studies lack validity as they’re not measuring true attachment across cultures but only western ideals of secure attachment
108
Q

van Ijzendoorn & Kroonenberg (1988)

Elaborate on the evaluation point: Biased Sample

A
  • 27/32 studies were carried out in individualistic cultures
    • ∴ results biased towards individualistic culture norms ∴ we can’t accurately generalise results to collectivist cultures → lowering population validity
  • BUT overall sample size (over 1900 infants) is strength ∵ research in this area use smaller numbers
109
Q

van Ijzendoorn & Kroonenberg (1988)

Elaborate on the evaluation point: Criticised for comparing countries not cultures

A
  1. Within each country = many different subcultures, each with own way of childrearing
  2. BUT researchers found variance within countries was greater than between countries
  3. So they ∴ did collect data on subcultures within countries they investigated rather than whole nation
110
Q

What is deprivation?

A

When attachment bond is formed between infant and caregiver but then broken later in life

111
Q

What is separation?

A

Absence of primary caregiver for short period of time

112
Q

What is privation?

A

When children do not form an attachment with anyone

113
Q

Describe an infant’s response to separation (PDD)

A
  1. Protest
    • Intense crying, panicked, angry
  2. Despair
    • Loss of hope, little interest in surroundings, engages in self-conforming behaviour
  3. Detachment
    • Less distressed if caregiver returns, infant doesn’t respond and shows anger
114
Q

Describe Bowlby’s theory of maternal deprivation

A
  • Believed that attachment = essential for healthy social & emotional development of children
    • Deprivation of this = negative effects on social, intellectual and emotional development
  • Loss or prolonged separation from attachment figure during critical period = emotional disturbance
    • Only cause this if separation occurred before ages of 2.5 & if there was no mother substitute
  • Maternal deprivation long term effects:
    • Inability to form bonds with other people
    • Avoidant/dismissive attachment type
    • Higher risk of depression
115
Q

Bowlby’s Theory of Maternal Deprivation

Name the key study

A

44 Juvenile Thieves (Bowlby, 1944)

116
Q

44 Juvenile Thieves (Bowlby, 1944)

State the aim

A
  • To see if early separation from primary caregiver was associated with behaviour disorder
    • Behaviour disorder = affectionless psychopathy = individuals who no sense of shame or guilt
117
Q

44 Juvenile Thieves (Bowlby, 1944)

Describe the method

A
  • Children, 5-16 years old, referred to guidance clinic in London used
  • 44 children were criminals & 44 non-criminal children were used as control group
  • Bowlby interviewed children & families to create record of early life experiences
118
Q

44 Juvenile Thieves (Bowlby, 1944)

Describe the results

A
  1. 14/44 thieves = affectionless psychopaths
    • 86% of these affectionless psychopaths experienced early & prolonged deprivation
  2. 17% of ‘other thieves’ = experienced separations
  3. 4% of control group experienced frequent early separations
119
Q

44 Juvenile Thieves (Bowlby, 1944)

Describe the conclusion

A
  • Link between early separations and later social maladjustment
  • Maternal deprivation hypothesis leads to affection less psychopathy and antisocial behaviour
120
Q

Name 2 +ve evaluation points about Bowlby’s MDT

A
  1. Real world implications
  2. Evidence for lack of maternal love = insecure attachment behaviour
121
Q

Name 2 -ve evaluation points about Bowlby’s MDT

A
  • Correlational data
  • No distinction between deprivation and privation
122
Q

Bowlby’s MDT

Elaborate about the +ve evaluation points about: Lack of emotional support/maternal love can lead to insecure attachment behaviour

A
  • Researcher studied mothers = severely depressed & unable to provide emotional care to their children
  • 55% of “depressed sample” of mothers had children with insecure attachments VS 29% of control group of non-depressed mothers
  • Supports Bowlby’s MDT ∵ shows lack of maternal love = damage attachments
123
Q

Bowlby’s MDT

Elaborate about the +ve evaluation points about: Real world implications

A
  • Significant impact on practice in institutions e.g. hospitals where infants likely to experience prolonged separation
  • Before, mothers and children were separated & visitation was limited
    • Robertson’s (1952) observed 2 year old girl, Laura, hospitalised for 8 days
    • Struggled to cope with emotional deprivation, showed real distress
  • Key changes have occurred due to new psychological insight into how provide quality substitute emotional care in absence of parents
    • To minimise negative consequences
124
Q

Bowlby’s MDT

Elaborate about the -ve evaluation point about: Correlational data

A
  • Found relationship between deprivation & later behavioural issues, not clear if early separation caused these → other factors may be involved
  • e.g. socio-economic factors
  • Can’t establish cause and effect relationship to conclude that separation leads to behavioural issues & affectionless psychopathy
125
Q

Bowlby’s MDT

Elaborate about the -ve evaluation point about: No distinction between deprivation and privation

A
  1. Unclear if children studied had formed attachments & then these were broken OR if they had never formed attachment
  2. Rutter (1981) argued that distinction needed ∵ believed privation = greater negative impact on child’s mental development than deprivation
  3. ∴ Children who displayed greatest signs of “emotionless psychopathy” may have experienced privation rather than deprivation = undermines Bowlby’s theory
126
Q

Define Institutionalisation

A

Describing the living in an institution where children can live for a prolonged period of time

Effects can be emotional, social, physical and cognitive

127
Q

Romanian Orphan Studies: Effects of Institutionalisation

Name the key study

A

Rutter et al (1998)

128
Q

Rutter et al (1998)

State the aim

A

To examine long-term effects of institutionalisation in longitudinal study

129
Q

Rutter et al (1998)

Describe the method

A
  1. 165 children spent early years in Romanian orhpahange = experimental group
    1. 111 adopted before age of 2 (before end of critical period)
    2. 54 adopted by age of 4
  2. Compared to control group of British children, adopted before 6 months old
  3. Social, cognitive, physical development of children was examined at regular intervals (between ages 4-15) & interviews conducted with adoptive parents + teachers
130
Q

Rutter et al (1998)

Describe the results

A
  • Initial assessment: 50% of Romanian orphans ≠ cognitive functioning & most were underweight
    • Control group of British orphans ≠ deficits
  • Age of 4: Romanian orphans showed great improvements, some catching up with their British counterparts = most evident in children adopted before age of 6 months
  • Those adopted after age of 6 months showed disinhibited attachment types & displayed social problems with peer relationships
131
Q

Rutter et al (1998)

Describe the conclusion

A

Institutionalisation can have serve long-term effects on children, especially if children are not provided with adequate emotional caregiving

132
Q

Name another romanian longitudinal study into the effects of institutionalization

A

Audet et al (2006)

133
Q

Describe what Le Mare and Audet (2006) did and what they find & conclude

A
  1. Orphans were adopted by Canadian families & DV = physical health and physical growth
  2. Age of 4: physically smaller than control group of children
  3. Difference disappeared by age of 10 & physical healthy improved in line with control group
  4. Highlighted recovery from institutional care was possible for physical development
134
Q

Name 2 +ve evaluation points about Rutter’s Romanian ophan study

A
  • Real world application
  • Longitudinal study
135
Q

Name 2 -ve evaluation points about Rutter’s Romanian ophan study

A
  • Deprivation is only one factor in development
  • Can’t generalise results
136
Q

Rutter’s Romanian ophan study

Elaborate on the +ve evaluation point about: Real world application

A
  1. Helped improve quality of care in institutions
  2. Before carers were discouraged from forming attachment or close bonds
    • But now bonds encouraged as it’s important for physical and mental growth
  3. Before mothers were encouraged to keep babies for substantial period
    1. & critical period may have passed
    2. Now, infants are adopted as early as 1-week old
  4. Singer et al (1985)’s research shown adopted children are just as securely attached as non-adoptive children
    • Shows how research has improved care for children
137
Q

Rutter’s Romanian ophan study

Elaborate on the +ve evaluation point about: Longitudinal study

A
  • Research took place over many years = could assess short-term and long-term effects of institutionalisation & benefits of adoption
  • ∴ results appear to be valid representation of effects of being placed in institutional care & results of receiving follow-up emotional caregiving
138
Q

Rutter’s Romanian ophan study

Elaborate on the -ve evaluation point about: Deprivation is only one factor in development

A
  • Orphans experienced very little to no mental stimulation & were often malnourished
  • Suggests multiple risk factors involved in finding out the effects of institutional care
  • ∴ difficult to interpret results of studies as sole effect of deprivation as there’s many influences that affected the children (e.g. living poverty)
139
Q

Rutter’s Romanian ophan study

Elaborate on the -ve evaluation point about: Can’t generalise results

A
  • Conditions for Romanian orphans were so atrocious = can’t be considered typical
  • Results from Romanian institutions don’t represent all situations were children are placed in care and experience deprivation
  • Lack of external validity results of unusual situational variables
140
Q

The Influence of Early Attachments

Describe the internal working model (3x)

A

Proposed by Bowlby (1969)

  • Attachment to primary caregiver provides child with internal working model of relationships
  • Model represents relationship with primary figure and acts as a template for future relationships
  • Predicts outcomes of behaviour in childhood and adulthood
141
Q

The Influence of Early Attachments

Describe relationships in childhood

A
  1. Kerns (1994)
    1. Securely attached infants = good quality peer relationships during childhood
    2. Infant with insecure attachment types = difficulties making/maintaining friendships
  2. Sroufe et al. (2005)
    1. Conducted Minnesota child-parent study & found infants rated high in social competence during childhood = empathetic, popular & felt less isolated
    2. Results can be explained by internal working model: infants securely attached = positive expectations of others
      • expect trustworthiness and friendliness in return
142
Q

Relationships in Adulthood: Romantic

State the key study

A

Hazan and Shaver (1987)

143
Q

Hazan and Shaver (1987)

State the aim

A

Questionnaire, ‘Love Quiz’ designed to test internal working model to see if attachment type formed as infant influences friendships & adult relationships

144
Q

Hazan and Shaver (1987)

Describe the procedure

A
  1. ‘Love Quiz’ = 3 sections published in local American newspaper’
    1. 1st section: assess individuals’ most important relationship
    2. 2nd section: finding out general experiences in love
    3. 3rd section: asked some participants about their feelings in relation to some statements
  2. Received 620 volunteer responses
145
Q

Hazan and Shaver (1987)

Describe the findings

A
  1. (56%) respondents = securely attached
  2. (25%) insecure-avoidant attachment type
  3. (19%) insecure-resistant
  4. Secure attachments = most likely to have loving and lasting romantic relationships (10 years or more)
  5. Insecure-avoidant attachment type = report feeling of dislike in relation to intimacy
  6. Insecure-resistant attachment type = shorter relationships (6 years)
146
Q

Hazan and Shaver (1987)

Describe the conclusion

A

Findings analysed from ‘Love Quiz’ = attachment type behaviours reflected in adult romantic relationships ∵ of internal working model formed in infancy to guide expectations

147
Q

The Influence of Early Attachments

Describe how parenting in adulthood is affected by early attachments

A
  • Internal working model also influences parenting style of individual
    • Attachment type tends to be passed down through generations of family
  • Bailey et al. (2007):
    • Attachment type of 100 mothers and their infants (strange situation) with relationships they had with their mothers (interview)
    • Vast proportion of women = same attachment type to their infant as to their mother
    • Supports internal working model influencing parenting styles
  • Harlow’s findings, monkeys with poor/no attachments = experienced difficulties with parenting
148
Q

Name 1 +ve evaluation point about the influence of early attachment on later life

A

Support from Simpson et al (2007)

149
Q

Name 2 -ve evaluation point about the influence of early attachment on later life

A
  • Correlational data
  • Overly deterministic
150
Q

Influence of Early Attachment on Later Life

Elaborate on the +ve evaluation point about: Support from Simpson et al (2007)

A
  • Support for link between early attachment types & later relationships
  • Infants assessed as securely attached at 1 = higher social competence at 16
  • More expressive and emotionally attached to their partners = early attachment type predicts later adult relationships
151
Q

Influence of Early Attachment on Later Life

Elaborate on the -ve evaluation point about: Correlational data

A
  1. Can’t say early attachment types and later love styles are based on cause & effect relationship
    1. May be other variables
    2. e.g. individual differences and innate temperament may influence how parent responses to child and attachment style formed
      1. Temperament hypothesis suggests quality of adult relationships is determined biologically from innate personality
      2. Temperament may be basis for how later relationships are formed
152
Q

Influence of Early Attachment on Later Life

Elaborate on the -ve evaluation point about: Overly deterministic

A
  1. Assume early childhood attachment types are fixed into adulthood
  2. & assume those insecurely attached at 1 = definitely going experiences emotional unhappiness in relationships as adults → incorrect
  3. Researchers found people who were not securely attached as infants to lead happy adult relationships in later life
  4. Many factors may influence later attachment