4.1.4 Psychopathology Flashcards Preview

A level Psychology > 4.1.4 Psychopathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in 4.1.4 Psychopathology Deck (147)
Loading flashcards...
1

Name the 4 definitions of abnormality

  1. Deviation from Social Norms
  2. Failure to Function Adequately
  3. Deviation from Ideal Mental Health
  4. Statistical Infrequency 

2

Define Deviation from Social Norms

Deviation from unwritten social/societal rules for acceptable behaviour

3

Describe Deviation from Social Norms (AO1)

  1. Standards of acceptable behaviour set by social groups
    • Everyone expected to follow these norms
  2. Social norms can be explicit
    • i.e. laws - respect for human life and property
    • Some can be implicit 
      • e.g. queuing at a bus stop without pushing in
      • Is an acceptable behaviour
  3. When someone deviates from these socially acceptable behaviour = classed as abnormal

4

What are social deviants?

People who behave in an undesirable way

5

Deviation from Social Norms

Name +ve evaluation point

Society has right to intervene in abnormal people's lives

6

Deviation from Social Norms

Name 2 -ve evaluation points

  • Social norms change over time
  • Cultural bias

7

Deviation from Social Norms

Describe the evaluation point: Society has right to intervene in abnormal people's lives

  • ∴ people can receive help and treatment they wouldn't have gotten themselves
  • Using this definition = allows people with mental health issues to receive treatment that will improve their lives

8

Deviation from Social Norms

Describe the evaluation point: Social norms change over time

  1. Socially acceptable behaviour may become socially deviant later & vice versa
    1. e.g. homosexuality = now socially acceptable & before = socially deviant & mental disorder
    2. ∴ defintion = era-dependent 
  2. Form of diagnosis open to abuse
    1. e.g. 1950s Russia, people that disagreed with government = diagnosed as insane & put into mental institutions
    2. Using this definition = people being persecuted for being non-conformist
  3. Major changes in society happened due to socially deviant behaviour
    1. e.g. suffragettes movement = socially deviant behaviour but led to women voting

9

Deviation from Social Norms

Describe the evaluation point: Cultural bias

  • e.g. western social norms reflect majority of white western population
  • ∴ ethics groups which behave differently could classed as abnormal ∵ their behaviour is based on eastern/European values
  • Cultural values may influence diagnosis

10

Define Failure to Function Adequately

Defined as failing to meet the demands of social life, preventing normal performance in daily activities

11

Failure to Function Adequately

Describe what Rosenhan et al. suggested

  • Rosenhan et al. suggest that the concept of dysfunction includes key features
  • More of these present = more likely abnormality will occur

12

Name the 5 key features of dysfunction

  • Personal distress 
  • Maladaptive behaviour 
  • Unpredictability 
  • Irrationality 
  • Observer discomfort 

13

Key Features of Dysfunction

Describe the feature: Personal distress 

Displaying suffering and distress

14

Key Features of Dysfunction

Describe the feature: Maladaptive behaviour

Behaviour that stops people from attaining satisfactory goals - in social/work life

15

Key Features of Dysfunction

Describe the feature: Unpredictability 

  • Behaviour you wouldn't expect in particular circumstances
  • Show loss of control 

16

Key Features of Dysfunction

Describe the feature: Observer discomfort  

Behaviour causes distress and discomfort to others

17

Key Features of Dysfunction

Describe the feature: Irrationality 

Behaviour that can't be explained rationally

18

Failure to Function Adequately

Name +ve evaluation point

Recognises subjective experience of suffers

19

Failure to Function Adequately

Name 3 -ve evaluation point

  • Sometimes normal to show features of dysfunction
  • Abnormality ≠ observable dysfunctional traits
  • Cultural bias

20

Failure to Function Adequately

Describe the evaluation point: Recognises subjective experience of suffers

  • & patient centred view by allowing mental disorders to viewed from perception of suffers
  • Allows for individuals differences between patients

21

Failure to Function Adequately

Describe the evaluation point: Sometimes normal to show features of dysfunction

  • e.g. when loved one dies = normal to show personal distress and irrationality
  • Definition doesn't consider this = limitation

22

Failure to Function Adequately

Describe the evaluation point: Abnormality ≠ observable dysfunctional traits

  • e.g. psychopaths can cause great harm yet appear to be normal
    • e.g. Shipman, English doctor, murdered 215 patients over 20+ years and seemed to be respectable doctor
    • Was abnormal but didn't show features of dysfunction
  • ∴ definition doesn't account for all abnormal individuals 

23

Failure to Function Adequately

Describe the evaluation point: Cultural bias

  • Related to how one culture believes a person should live their lives
  • Basing abnormality on failure to function = different diagnoses when used on people from different cultures

24

Define Deviation from Ideal Mental Health

Failing to meet the psychological criteria needed to be psychologically healthy

25

Deviation from Ideal Mental Health

What did Johoda do and believe?

  • Johoda identified six major criteria for optimal living = promoted psychological healthy and wellbeing
  • Absence of these criteria = abnormality & maybe mental disorder

26

Deviation from Ideal Mental Health

Name the six major criteria for optimal living

  1. Positive attitudes towards the self
  2. Potential for growth and development
  3. Autonomy 
  4. Accurate perception of reality
  5. Resistance to stress 
  6. Adapting to environment 

27

Deviation from Ideal Mental Health

Describe the criteria: Positive attitudes towards the self

High self-esteem and strong sense of identity

28

Deviation from Ideal Mental Health

Describe the criteria: Potential for growth and development

Experiences personal growth and development towards their potential

29

Deviation from Ideal Mental Health

Describe the criteria: Autonomy 

Independent, self-reliant & able to make personal decisions

30

Deviation from Ideal Mental Health

Describe the criteria: Accurate perception of reality

Perceiving the world in objective and realistic view