4.1.2 Memory Flashcards Preview

A level Psychology > 4.1.2 Memory > Flashcards

Flashcards in 4.1.2 Memory Deck (182)
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1

What is memory?

Process by which we retain information about events that happened in the past

2

Name the 3 jobs of memory

  1. Encoding
  2. Storage 
  3. Retrieval

3

What is meant by encoding?

Transforming sensory inputs so it can registered in memory

4

What is meant by storage?

Retaining or holding info in memory until needed

5

What is meant by retrieval?

Locating info which has been stored and extracting it from memory

6

What does the multi-store model explain?

Explains how information flows from 1 storage system to another

7

Who made the multi-store model?

Atkinson & Shiffrin

8

Draw the multi-store model

9

What is the sensory memory register?

Store that contains information received through senses

10

What is the duration for the sensory memory register?

Limited but varies 

11

Describe the research into the duration of the sensory memory register 

  • Presented identical auditory messages to both ears of participants with slight delay between messages
  • Participants noticed messages were identical & there was delay of 2 seconds or less
  • Suggests echoic store has max duration of 2 seconds

12

What is coding like for the sensory memory register?

5 different systems

  • Echoic store - processes auditory info
  • Iconic store - visual
  • Haptic store - tactile
  • Gustatory store - taste
  • Olfactory store - smell

13

Describe the research into coding of the sensory memory register 

  • Crowder found evidence for these different forms of storage
    • Iconic store = milliseconds 
    • Echoic store = up to 3 seconds
  • Supports idea of info being coded into different sensory forms

14

What is the capacity for the sensory memory register?

Very large capacity (unprocessed info)

15

Describe the research into the capacity of the sensory memory register 

  • Flashed 3x4 gird of letters for 1/20 second
  • Asked participants to recall letters of 1 row
  • He would sound a tone (high, medium, low) to indicate which row to recall 
  • Recall of letters = high ∴ capacity of SR is large

16

What is short term memory (STM)?

Store for events in present or immediate past

17

What is the duration for the STM?

Short, 18-30s

18

Describe the research into the duration of the STM 

Method

  • Nonsense trigrams were read to participants (3 nonsensical constants e.g. ZNB)
  • Then asked to count backwards in 3s from large-digit number (don't to prevent rehearsal and transfer of information into LTM)
  • Instructed to count backwards for anywhere from 3 up to 18 seconds

19

Describe the research into the duration of the STM 

Findings

  • Short period of time 
  • 18-30 seconds
  • (3 seconds = 90% of them recall trigram correctly, 18 seconds = 5%)

20

Describe the research into the duration of the STM 

Conclusion

Duration in STM = short, lasting less than 30 seconds

21

Describe the research into the duration of the STM 

Evaluations

  • Unlikely to represent how real-life memory work
    • Recalling nonsense trigrams = lacks mundane realism
    • Might be that real memory can only last up to 30 seconds
  • Methodological issues 
    • Different trigrams were given to participants on each trial = interference could have occurred = more difficult to recall items
    • Might be reason for poor recall rather than suggesting it's due to short duration in memory

22

What is coding like for the STM?

Acoustically 

23

Describe the research into coding of the STM 

Method

Baddeley 

  • 75 participants presented with 4 word lists, repeated 4 times
    1. List A: Acoustically similar 
    2. List B: Acoustically dissimilar 
    3. List C: Semantically similar 
    4. List D: Semantically dissimilar 

24

Describe the research into coding of the STM 

Findings

Acoustically similar list had lowest recall - 10%

25

Describe the research into coding of the STM 

Conclusion

  • Due to acoustic confusion = shows importance of sound in STM
  • ∴ STM encodes acoustically 

26

Describe the research into coding of the STM 

Evaluations

  • Pro: Cause and effect
  • Cons
    • Lacks ecological validity 
    • Acoustic is not only coding process

27

What is the capacity for the STM?

Limited capacity 

5-9 items 

28

Describe the research into the capacity of the STM 

Method

  1.  Presented with increasingly longer lists of digits or letters
  2. Had to recall them in right order
  3. 3.5% recall = reached their capacity

29

Describe the research into the capacity of the STM 

Findings 

Average 9 numbers and 7 letters

30

Describe the research into the capacity of the STM 

Conclusion 

  • STM = limited storage capacity
  • Memory for numbers better than memory for letters
    • ∵ 10 potential digits VS 26 letters