# 4.2.3.1 Scientific processes Flashcards

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1
Q

What is an aim?

A

General statement of what the researcher intends to investigate

2
Q

What should you always start aims with?

A

3
Q

What is a hypothesis?

A

Clear, precise, testable statement that states the relationship between the variables being investigated

4
Q

When should you write a directional hypothesis?

A

Used when findings of previous research suggests a particular outcome

5
Q

When should you write a non-directional hypothesis?

A

Used when there’s no previous research/previous research is contradictory

6
Q

State the one-tailed formula (directional)

A

There will be a significant (state change i.e. increase/decrease) in (DV) for (IV 1 - one which change relates to) than (IV 2)

There will be significant increase in spelling scores out of 20 for children that eat 10g of oily fish a day than children that do not eat any oily fish a day

7
Q

State the two-tailed formula (non-directional)

A

There will be a significant difference in (DV) between (IV 1) and (IV 2)

There will be significant difference in spelling scores out of 20 between children eat 10g of oily fish a day and children that do not eat any oily fish a day

8
Q

State the null hypothesis formula

A

There will be no significant difference in (DV) between (IV 1) and (IV 2)

There will be no significant difference in spelling scores out of 20 for children between eat 10g of oily fish a day and children that do not eat any oily fish a day

9
Q

What are variables?

A

Factors that can change within an investigation

10
Q

Define Independent Variable

A

Variable that’s changed/manipulated by researcher

11
Q

Define Dependent Variable

A

Variable that’s measured by researcher

12
Q

Define Extraneous Variable

A

Variable that may have an effect one results of experiment BUT is not the IV

13
Q

Define Operationalisation

A

Clearly defining variables in terms of how they can be measured

14
Q

Define Standard Procedures

A

Way of ensuring that all participants receive same instructions & completes same tasks to have consistence in experiment

15
Q

Why can cause and effect can be achieved in lab experiments?

A

By having one thing different = researchers can conclude that any differences in measured behaviour of participants (DV) is due to one that differs (IV)

16
Q

Describe Counterbalancing

A

To control order effects: participants are split in half

17
Q

What are order effects?

A

How order when participants do conditions affects the results (better or bored)

18
Q

Name 2 types of extraneous variables

A
• Random Errors
• Constant Errors
19
Q

What are random errors?

A

Variables that cannot be predicted

20
Q

Give an example of random error

A

e.g. participants state of mind/mood, whether they’re ill/cold on the day

21
Q

Name 2 ways we can deal with random errors

A
• Eliminate them by standardising = make sure all participants have same experience
• e.g. same room, same questions, same instructions
• Dealt by randomly allocating participants to experiment and control conditions = effects of errors might be balanced out
22
Q

What are constant errors?

A

EVs that have more of an effect on one condition of experiment than other

23
Q

Name an example of constant errors

A

Participant characteristics (e.g. personality, intelligence, gender, age)

24
Q

When do constant errors occur?

A

When psychologists hasn’t randomised or counterbalance correctly

25
Q

Participants need to by randomised in ways such as… (name 3 ways)

A
• Random allocation of order of the conditions
• Random allocation of participants to conditions
• Randomly allocate information in conditions
26
Q

Name 5 sampling techniques

A
• Random Sample
• Systematic Sample
• Stratified Sampling
• Opportunity Sample
• Volunteer Sample
27
Q

Define Random Sampling

A

All members of target population have equal chance of being selected

28
Q

Random Sampling

Procedure

A

List of all members of target population is obtained & names on list are assigned a number

29
Q

Random Sampling

Name a pro

A
• Avoids researcher bias
• No influence over who’s selected ∴ researcher can’t choose people that may support their hypothesis
30
Q

Random Sampling

Name 3 cons

A
• Difficult and time consuming
• Can still end up with biased sample
• Participants may refuse to take part = biased sample & unrepresentative
31
Q

Define Systematic Sampling

A

Every nth member of target population is selected

e.g. every 3rd house on street

32
Q

Systematic Sampling

Procedure

A
• Achieved by having sampling frame (list of people in target population in alphabetical order)
• Then sampling system is chosen (every 5th person) or produced randomly to reduce bias
33
Q

Systematic Sampling

Name 2 pros

A
• Avoids researcher bias
• Fairly representative
34
Q

Systematic Sampling

Name a con

A

Participants may refuse to take part = biased sample & unrepresentative

35
Q

Define Stratified Sampling

A

Composition of sample represents the proportions of people in certain sub-groups (strata) within target population

36
Q

Stratified Sampling

Procedure

A
1. Identify different strata that make up population
2. Calculate proportions needed for sample to be representative
3. Participants that make up each stratum are selected using random sampling
37
Q

Stratified Sampling

Name 2 pros

A
• Avoids research bias
• Representative sample for strata = generalisations possible
38
Q

Stratified Sampling

Name 2 cons

A
• Identified strata can’t reflect all ways that people are different
• ≠ Complete representation of target population
• Expensive and time-consuming
39
Q

Define Opportunity Sample

A

Involves asking whoever is available at time and is willing to participate

40
Q

Opportunity Sample

Name a pro

A

Convenient - saves researcher time/effort & less costly

41
Q

Opportunity Sample

Name 2 cons

A
• Unrepresentative sample of target population
• ∵ drawn from very specific area (e.g. 1 street)
• Research has complete control over selection of participants = research bias
42
Q

Define Volunteer Sampling

A

Involves participants selecting themselves to be part of sample (self selection)

43
Q

Volunteer Sampling

Procedure

A

Get volunteer sample by placing ad in newspaper where target population would see it

44
Q

Volunteer Sampling

Name a pro

A

Minimal effort, less time-consuming and costly

45
Q

Volunteer Sampling

Name a con

A

Volunteer bias

Asking for volunteers can attract a certain ‘profile’ of person (one who’s helpful, curious)

46
Q

What are pilot studies?

A
• Small scale trial run of actual investigation
• Helps to identify any flaws & things that don’t work
47
Q

Name 3 things pilot studies can be used for

A
• Experimental studies
• Self report methods (e.g. questionnaires and interviews)
• Observational studies
48
Q

Give 3 examples of what pilot studies could check for

A
• Whether standardised instructions are clear
• Check pictures/materials used are clear
• Check participants are given enough time to complete task
• Make sure participants don’t guess the aim
• Make sure participants don’t get bored ∵ there’s too little tasks
49
Q

What are experimental designs?

A

Way which participants used in an experiment

50
Q

Name 3 experimental designs

A
• Independent Group Design
• Repeated Measures
• Matched Pairs
51
Q

Describe Independent Group Design

A
• 2 separate groups of participants experience 2 different conditions of experiment
• e.g. Group 1: participants drink energy drink & Group 2: participants drink water
• Participants only experience one of conditions & performance of 2 groups can be compared
52
Q

Independent Group Design

Name a pro

A
• Order effects are not problem
• Participants only take part in one condition = less likely to guess aim, become bored or better at completing the condition
53
Q

Independent Group Design

Name 2 cons

A
• Less economical
• 2x as many participants needed
• Individual differences
• Can’t be sure that DV is result of IV = may have been caused by individual differences
• ∴ researcher needs to randomly allocate participants = ensure participants have equal change of being in each group
54
Q

Describe Repeated Measures

A

All participants experience both conditions in experiment

55
Q

Repeated Measures

Name 2 pros

A
• Individual differences are not an issue
• Fewer participants = cost effective
56
Q

Repeated Measures

Name 2 cons

A
• Order effects
• Participants may get bored or better = affects DV or participants’ performance may improve due to practice
• Order of conditions = confounding variable
• ∴ conditions need to be counterbalanced
• Demand characteristics
• More likely to guess the aim and change their behaviour
57
Q

Describe Matched Pairs

A
• Participants are matched on some variables that affect DV (e.g. IQ, age)
• In attempt to control confounding variable of participant variables
58
Q

Matched Pairs

Name a pro

A

Order effects and demand characteristics less of a problem = do only one condition

59
Q

Matched Pairs

Name 2 cons

A
• Participants can never be matched exactly
• Matching = time-consuming and expensive
60
Q

What are confounding variables?

A

Variables that affects the dependent variable

61
Q

When do confounding variables occur?

A

When extraneous variable remains uncontrolled

e.g. not randomly allocating stimuli or not counterbalancing = become confounding variable

62
Q

What is the issue with confounding variables?

A

If you have one = impossible to say whether DV is result of IV or could been a constant error

63
Q

Describe the British Psychological Society Guidelines

A

DRIPP

• Deception
• Right to Withdraw
• Informed Consent
• Protection from (psychological) Harm
• Privacy
64
Q

British Psychological Society Guidelines

Describe Deception

A
• Make sure debrief
65
Q

British Psychological Society Guidelines

Describe Right to Withdraw

A
• All participants should know the withdraw at any time & how to withdraw
• Shouldn’t be be obliged to continue participating and should be aware they leave part way
• Data will be removed
66
Q

British Psychological Society Guidelines

Describe Informed Consent

A

Participants should be aware about of aims, procedure, their rights and what their data will be used for

67
Q

How does the BPS suggest to ask for informed consent?

A

Participants should get consent letter

68
Q

State what you should include in a consent letter

A
69
Q

Name 4 ways to gain consent

A
• Parental consent
• Presumptive consent
• Prior general consent
• Retrospective consent
70
Q

Describe parental consent

A

If participants under ago of 16, parents will agree on child’s behalf

71
Q

Describe presumptive consent

A
• Getting consent from similar group of people (to participants) if study is acceptable
• If group agrees, consent of original participants is ‘presumed’
72
Q

Describe prior general consent

A

Participants give their permission to take part in number of studies

73
Q

Describe retrospective consent

A

Ask for consent (during debriefing) after taken part in study

74
Q

Describe protection from (psychological) harm

A
• Participant should leave in same state as they entered experiment
• Shouldn’t be subjected to physical or psychological harm
• Should be allowed to withdraw if they feel uncomfortable
75
Q

Describe privacy

A
• Confidentiality = legal right for participants
• Should ensure anonymity by removing names/identifying details
• Can’t observe people where there’s expectation of privacy
• Data protection
• Right to have personal data protected
• Right to control information about themselves
• If not possible = confidentiality
76
Q

What is peer review?

A
• Peer reviewers judge the scientific quality of research
• Process used to help ensure integrity of published scientific work
77
Q

Why are papers peer reviewed? (name 4 reasons)

A
• Research that’s published should be of high quality
• Helps allocate research funding
• Helps spot fraudulent research, so research that’s published can be trusted by general public
• To publish of research in science journal and books (must be peer reviewed before hand)
• Contributes to research rating of university departments
78
Q

Describe the peer review process

A
1. Expert in same field will selected, who works for the journal the paper has been submitted to
2. They’ll read unpublished paper & look for mistakes
3. Say it can be published, that it needs a review before publication or that it’s rejected
• Usually there are small changes to be made
79
Q

What are demand characteristics?

A

Cues that make participants consciously aware of aims of study

80
Q

What are investigator effects?

A
• Cues (other than IV) from investigator that encourage certain behaviours in participant
• Might led to fulfilment of investigator’s expectations
• (Cues would be extraneous or confounding variables)
81
Q

When do investigator effects occur?

A

When researcher unintentionally or unconsciously influences outcome of research they’re conducting

82
Q

Investigator effects can be ____ or ______

A

direct or indirect

83
Q

How do direct investigator effects come about?

A

When investigator directly interacts with participants

84
Q

How do indirect investigator effects come about?

A

Way investigator has designed study

85
Q

Name 3 ways investigator effects can occur

A
• Non-verbal communication
• Physical characteristics
• Bias in interpretation of data
86
Q

Describe how non-verbal communication can lead to investigator effects

A
• Researcher can communicate their feelings about what they’re observing without realising
• Participant may then alter their response, affecting validity of data
87
Q

Describe how physical characteristics can lead to investigator effects

A
• Appearance of researcher e.g. gender will influence behavioural response of participant
• ∴ behaviour is product of researcher & ∴ not reliable/valid
88
Q

Investigator Effects

Describe bias in interpretation of data

A
• May not realise they’re interpreting data in biased way ∵ believe their view is the correct one
• Occurs only for some types of data
89
Q

Name 3 ways to deal with problems (e.g. investigator effects, demand characteristics) in experiments

A
1. Single blind design
2. Double blind design
3. Experimental realism
90
Q

Describe a single blind design

A
• Participants not aware of research aims/condition their receiving
• Prevents participant from seeking cues about aims and reacting to them
91
Q

Describe a double blind design

A
• Both participants and person conducting experiment are blind to aims
• Person conducting investigating = less likely to produce cues of they expect
92
Q

Describe experimental realism

A

If researcher makes experiment task sufficiently engaging then participants pays attention to task & not fact they’re being observed

93
Q

What is validity?

A
• Means accuracy
• How legitimate something is an explanation of behaviour
94
Q

Name and describe a test for validity

A
• Concurrent Validity
• Measures test against benchmark test and high correlation = test has strong validity
95
Q

What is reliability?

A
• Consistency
• Repeating test and gaining same result with same group of participants at some point in future
96
Q

Name 3 types of reliability

A
• Test-re-Test reliability
• Split Half reliability
• Inter-observer reliability
97
Q

Describe Test-re-Test reliability

A
1. Assess degree to which test scores are consistent from 1 test administration to the next
2. Measurements gathered from single rater who uses same methods or instruments and same testing conditions
3. If test is reliable = score would be same on both occasions