5/26- Human Devo & Psychopathology Flashcards Preview

Term 5: Behavioral Science > 5/26- Human Devo & Psychopathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in 5/26- Human Devo & Psychopathology Deck (31):
1

Broad organizational categories/themes in Behavioral Sciences?

- Cross-sectional (e.g. stages of life)

- Developmental themes (e.g. language, emotions, psychosexual)

- Pathology (e.g. bullying, autism, eating disorders)

2

How to best learn normal behavior (to provide patient context)?

- Knowledge about what is normal in diff stages of the lifespan

- Information on pathology (use to understand normal)

- Discussion of application (e.g. gender identity)

(- Outside lecture activities)

3

What is development (def)?

Systematic continuities and changes that individuals display over the course of their lives that reflect the influence of biological maturation and learning

4

What are some developmental themes (4)?

- Nature vs. Nurture

- Passive vs. Active

- Continuity vs. Discontinuity (and non-linearity)

- Universal vs. Context-dependent

5

Different frameworks to understand development?

- Cross-sectional (life stages)

- Longitudinal (e.g. attachment, language)

- Contextual (historical, cultural, familial/extra-familial)

- Developmental (biological, cognitive, emotional, psychosocial)

- Pyschoanalytic theories (Freud, Erikson, Mahler)

- Learning theories...

And more...

6

Five stages of infancy and toddlerhood?

- Prenatal

- 0-2 mo

- 2-7 mo

- 7-18 mo

- 18-36 mo

7

Factors in the prenatal stage?

- In utero exposures to toxins

- Health complications

- Maternal emotional well-being

-Parental expectations for fetus

8

Primitive motor reflexes in infancy (7)?

- Rooting

- Sucking

- Moro

- Blink

- Babinski

- Palmar

- Stepping

9

Age of disappearance and significance of root reflex?

Touching baby on cheek causes their turning toward it

- Disappears at 3-4 wks (replaced by voluntary head turning)

- Helps baby find nipple

10

Age of disappearance and significance of sucking reflex?

- Disappears at 4 mo (replaced by voluntary sucking)

- Permits feeding

11

Age of disappearance and significance of moro reflex?

Any loud noise/putting child down startles the baby and wakes them up (why some people swaddle)

- Disappears at 6 mo

- May help baby cling to mom

12

Age of disappearance and significance of blink reflex?

- Permanent

- Protects eyes

13

Age of disappearance and significance of Babinski reflex?

Toes point up/fan out if you stroke/press along bottom of foot

- Disappears at 8-12 months

- Remnant of evolution

14

Age of disappearance and significance of palmar reflex?

Newborn holds very tightly to finger/hand in newborn's grip

- Disappears 3-4 mo

- Precursor to voluntary walking

15

Age of disappearance and significance of stepping reflex?

Newborn will start making walking movements if held upright

- Disappears at 2-3 mo

- Precursor to voluntary walking

16

Main characteristics at 0-2 mo?

Maintaining homeostasis

(Physiological equilibrium in the face of internal and external stimuli)

- Sleep

- Hunger/thirst

- Stimulation (via eye contact)

17

Motor milestones at 0-2 mo?

Birth: turns head side to side

2 mo: visually tracks and lifts head when prone

18

Social/emotional milestones at 0-2 mo?

2 mo: social smile and can respond to facial expression

(6 wks- 6 mo: indiscriminate attachment)

19

Social/emotional at 2-7 mo?

- Increased social reciprocity between the infant and caregiver(s)

- Specific attachment phase: shows a preference and increased attachment to a particular caregiver (7-9 mo)

20

Motor milestones at 2-7 mo?

Much more interactive; starting to get a sense of their bodies

- Reaches for objects (4-5 mo)

- Roll back to side (4 mo)

- Roll front to back (6 mo)

- Sit with support (6 mo)

- Sit without support (9 mo)

- Transfer objects hand to hand (6-7 mo)

Order: back to side <= reach < front to back < sit with support < transfer < sit without support

21

Social at 7-18 mo?

- Reciprocal communication and social preference or belonging

- Devo of inter-subjectivity or the understanding that their thoughts, feelings, gestures and sounds can be heard by others; sense of who they are

- Stranger anxiety (begins at 8 mo; peaks ~ 24 mo)

- Separation anxiety (begins 6-8 mo; peaks 14-18 mo)

22

Motor milestones at 7-18 mo?

- Crawl (6-9 mo)

- Pull to stand (9 mo)

- Walking (12 mo)

23

What did Erik Erickson say?

Developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst

Came up with 8 psychosocial stages (or general conflicts) from birth to death

24

Erickson's psychosocial stages?

(Theoretical stages chart on blackboard)

- Infancy: trust vs. mistrust

- Early childhood: autonomy vs. shame/doubt

- Preschool: initiative vs. guilt

- School: industry vs. inferiority

- Adolescence: identity vs. role confusion

- Young adulthood: infancy vs. isolation

- Middle adulthood: generativity vs. stagnation

- Maturity: ego integrity vs. despair

25

Major conflicts in infancy (trust vs. mistrust)

Is my world safe? (learned via caregiver)

- Attentive, reliable, caring, and affectionate caregiver

- When these are absent, infants mistrust that the world is a safe place

26

Implicit memories are formed when?

Before language; early in life

27

Importance of Jean Piaget?

- Swiss developmental psychologist, philosopher, scientist of nature

- Influenced by psycholanalyst Carl Jung; interested in how children develop their minds

- Best known for 4 stages of cognitive development

28

Piaget's cognitive development stages?

- Sensorimotor: infancy

- Preoperational: preschool - early elementary

- Concrete operations: middle - late elementary

- Formal operations: adolescence - adulthood

29

Sensorimotor stage hallmarks?

- Sensory input + motor capabilities = behavior schemes ("act on" and "get to know" their environments)

- Young infants have little sense of object permanence early on

Ex)

- Object permanence

- "A-Not-B Error Fail" (object permanence, but primitive)

30

What is temperament (def)?

A biological foundation for individual variations in behavior that are genetically influenced and persistent over time

31

9 dimensions of temperament (Thomas and Chess)

- Activity level

- Rhythmicity (regularity of sleep/feeding)

- Approach or withdrawal (+, withdrawing, -; response to new stimulus)

- Adaptability

- Threshold of responsiveness (level of stimulation to elicit noticeable response)

- Intensity of reaction

- Quality of mood (generally happy, fussy, sad...)

- Distractability

- Attention span and persistence (tenacity)

Discovered that aspects of temperament tended to cluster and continue over time