Broad organizational categories/themes in Behavioral Sciences?
- Cross-sectional (e.g. stages of life)
- Developmental themes (e.g. language, emotions, psychosexual)
- Pathology (e.g. bullying, autism, eating disorders)
How to best learn normal behavior (to provide patient context)?
- Knowledge about what is normal in diff stages of the lifespan
- Information on pathology (use to understand normal)
- Discussion of application (e.g. gender identity)
(- Outside lecture activities)
What is development (def)?
Systematic continuities and changes that individuals display over the course of their lives that reflect the influence of biological maturation and learning
What are some developmental themes (4)?
- Nature vs. Nurture
- Passive vs. Active
- Continuity vs. Discontinuity (and non-linearity)
- Universal vs. Context-dependent
Different frameworks to understand development?
- Cross-sectional (life stages)
- Longitudinal (e.g. attachment, language)
- Contextual (historical, cultural, familial/extra-familial)
- Developmental (biological, cognitive, emotional, psychosocial)
- Pyschoanalytic theories (Freud, Erikson, Mahler)
- Learning theories...
Five stages of infancy and toddlerhood?
- 0-2 mo
- 2-7 mo
- 7-18 mo
- 18-36 mo
Factors in the prenatal stage?
- In utero exposures to toxins
- Health complications
- Maternal emotional well-being
-Parental expectations for fetus
Primitive motor reflexes in infancy (7)?
Age of disappearance and significance of root reflex?
Touching baby on cheek causes their turning toward it
- Disappears at 3-4 wks (replaced by voluntary head turning)
- Helps baby find nipple
Age of disappearance and significance of sucking reflex?
- Disappears at 4 mo (replaced by voluntary sucking)
- Permits feeding
Age of disappearance and significance of moro reflex?
Any loud noise/putting child down startles the baby and wakes them up (why some people swaddle)
- Disappears at 6 mo
- May help baby cling to mom
Age of disappearance and significance of blink reflex?
- Protects eyes
Age of disappearance and significance of Babinski reflex?
Toes point up/fan out if you stroke/press along bottom of foot
- Disappears at 8-12 months
- Remnant of evolution
Age of disappearance and significance of palmar reflex?
Newborn holds very tightly to finger/hand in newborn's grip
- Disappears 3-4 mo
- Precursor to voluntary walking
Age of disappearance and significance of stepping reflex?
Newborn will start making walking movements if held upright
- Disappears at 2-3 mo
- Precursor to voluntary walking
Main characteristics at 0-2 mo?
(Physiological equilibrium in the face of internal and external stimuli)
- Stimulation (via eye contact)
Motor milestones at 0-2 mo?
Birth: turns head side to side
2 mo: visually tracks and lifts head when prone
Social/emotional milestones at 0-2 mo?
2 mo: social smile and can respond to facial expression
(6 wks- 6 mo: indiscriminate attachment)
Social/emotional at 2-7 mo?
- Increased social reciprocity between the infant and caregiver(s)
- Specific attachment phase: shows a preference and increased attachment to a particular caregiver (7-9 mo)
Motor milestones at 2-7 mo?
Much more interactive; starting to get a sense of their bodies
- Reaches for objects (4-5 mo)
- Roll back to side (4 mo)
- Roll front to back (6 mo)
- Sit with support (6 mo)
- Sit without support (9 mo)
- Transfer objects hand to hand (6-7 mo)
Order: back to side <= reach < front to back < sit with support < transfer < sit without support
Social at 7-18 mo?
- Reciprocal communication and social preference or belonging
- Devo of inter-subjectivity or the understanding that their thoughts, feelings, gestures and sounds can be heard by others; sense of who they are
- Stranger anxiety (begins at 8 mo; peaks ~ 24 mo)
- Separation anxiety (begins 6-8 mo; peaks 14-18 mo)
Motor milestones at 7-18 mo?
- Crawl (6-9 mo)
- Pull to stand (9 mo)
- Walking (12 mo)
What did Erik Erickson say?
Developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst
Came up with 8 psychosocial stages (or general conflicts) from birth to death
Erickson's psychosocial stages?
(Theoretical stages chart on blackboard)
- Infancy: trust vs. mistrust
- Early childhood: autonomy vs. shame/doubt
- Preschool: initiative vs. guilt
- School: industry vs. inferiority
- Adolescence: identity vs. role confusion
- Young adulthood: infancy vs. isolation
- Middle adulthood: generativity vs. stagnation
- Maturity: ego integrity vs. despair
Major conflicts in infancy (trust vs. mistrust)
Is my world safe? (learned via caregiver)
- Attentive, reliable, caring, and affectionate caregiver
- When these are absent, infants mistrust that the world is a safe place
Implicit memories are formed when?
Before language; early in life
Importance of Jean Piaget?
- Swiss developmental psychologist, philosopher, scientist of nature
- Influenced by psycholanalyst Carl Jung; interested in how children develop their minds
- Best known for 4 stages of cognitive development
Piaget's cognitive development stages?
- Sensorimotor: infancy
- Preoperational: preschool - early elementary
- Concrete operations: middle - late elementary
- Formal operations: adolescence - adulthood
Sensorimotor stage hallmarks?
- Sensory input + motor capabilities = behavior schemes ("act on" and "get to know" their environments)
- Young infants have little sense of object permanence early on
- Object permanence
- "A-Not-B Error Fail" (object permanence, but primitive)
What is temperament (def)?
A biological foundation for individual variations in behavior that are genetically influenced and persistent over time
9 dimensions of temperament (Thomas and Chess)
- Activity level
- Rhythmicity (regularity of sleep/feeding)
- Approach or withdrawal (+, withdrawing, -; response to new stimulus)
- Threshold of responsiveness (level of stimulation to elicit noticeable response)
- Intensity of reaction
- Quality of mood (generally happy, fussy, sad...)
- Attention span and persistence (tenacity)
Discovered that aspects of temperament tended to cluster and continue over time