Different types of emotions in terms of how they develop?
- Those present at birth
- Primary emotions
- Secondary emotions
Emotions present at birth?
What are primary emotions? When do they appear?
Considered biologically programmed (emerge in normal infants about the same time and in all cultures)
Appear 2-7 mo
- Joy (commonly from being able to manipulate environment)
What are secondary emotions? When do they appear?
Emerge later, require an understanding of the self
Appear 18-24 mo
Ex) Rouge test (putting red mark on kids' forehead and looking in mirror)
May be influenced by adults
How do the influences of adults affect secondary emotions?
- Amount of pride/shame revealed at succeeding or failing (in 4 and 5 yo) was largely based on mom's reactions
- Preschoolers are more likely to show self-evaluation emotions only when an adult is around
What is social referencing? When does it start?
- Using others' emotional expressions to infer meaning of otherwise uncertain situations
- Starts 7-10 mo (monitoring parents' reactions and adjusting their behavior)
- Toddlers will respond then look to companions (accuracy of response?)
- not just parents, also peers
Ex) mother smiling or expressing fear across a perceived drop off where a toy is
What emotion develops at 24 months? Coincident with what?
- Beginnings of cooperative play (although largely parallel- playing alongside but not with each other)
What develops at 36 months?
- Increased fantasy play
- Can label own gender
Can develop theory of mind (my perspective different from yours)
What develops at 60 months?
- Much more pretend play
Parenting tip for promoting emotional health
The more often 3 yo discusses emotional experiences with family, the better they are at interpreting emotions and setting disputes three years later in school
Motor milestones in preschoolers and toddlers: 15 mo?
Motor milestones in preschoolers and toddlers: 18 mo?
- Walk up stairs
- Start to run
Motor milestones in preschoolers and toddlers: 24 mo?
- Climb up and down stairs marking time
- Jump in place
- Put on simple clothes
- Feed self with spoon
Motor milestones in preschoolers and toddlers:36 mo?
- Climb up/down stairs with alternating feet
- Pedal a tricycle
- Draw circle
Motor milestones in preschoolers and toddlers: 4 years
- Catch a large ball
- Draw cross and square (4 corners)
Motor milestones in preschoolers and toddlers: 5 years
- Ride bike with training wheels
- Draw triangle
Recall: sensorimotor stage of cognitive development was the highlight of infancy.
Timeline and goals?
- Mastered object permanence (typ by 18 mo)
- Ability to understand symbols (e.g. waving "bye")
Pre-operational stage of cognitive development (Piaget)-
characteristics and timeline?
2 - 7 years (toddlerhood and childhood)
- Egocentrism (3 mountain task- what can you see from each side; just cause I can see something doesn't mean you can)
- Animism (giving personas to things; sun unhappy when it's cloudy, car hurt in car accident)
(covered in school age lecture):
- Appearance as reality
- Difficulty with the concept of reversibility
What is Erikson's psychosocial stage/conflict with this age group?
1-3 yo: Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt
- Young kid start developing skills; become more independent and self-reliant
- Success leads to feelings of autonomy
- Failures lead to feelings of shame/doubt; inhibiting their genuine selves
This correlates with Freud's Anal stage (psychosocial lecture)
Progression of attachment/phases?
- Asocial phase (0-2 mo)
- Phase of indiscriminate attachment (2-7 mo)
- Phase of specific attachment (7-9 mo)
- Phase of multiple attachment (9-18 mo)
What did Harry Harlow say about attachment?
- separated from mom but provided it with feeding wire monkey vs. cloth monkey
- Primates have instinctive cling to warmth/security
- Baby went to wire for feeding but returned to cloth immediately
Basically attachment is not just a bout food
What did Konrad Lorenz say about attachment?
Worked with imprinting on birds
- Young animal will look at primary caregiver and start to mimic its behavior (e.g. following it)
What did Rene Spitz say about attachment
Worked with maternal deprivation
- Studied babies left in orphanages around the time of WWII
- "From 6-18 mo if child deprived of mother w/out adequate substitute, its development becomes retarded within first 2 mo of separation; increasingly unapproachable, weepy, screaming"
- "In 3rd mo of separation, infant assumes pathognomonic position, rigid expression, developmental level regresses"
- "Infants deprived of mothers in first year of life for > 5 mo deteriorate progressively; lethargic, retarded motility, weight/growth arrested, vacuous face, mvt restricted to bizarre atypical finger mvts; unable to sit, stand, walk, or talk"
- In > 1/3 of the cases, the progressive deterioration of total personality led to murasmus and death by end of 2nd year of life
What did Mary Ainsworth say about attachment?
"The Strange Situation"
- Classified children ages 11-24 mo into 1 of 4 attachment categories
- 21 minute lab procedure
Process of strange situation?
- introduce parent/baby to playroom
- Parent sits while baby plays
- Stranger enters, sits, and talks to pts
- Parent leaves, stranger offers to comfort if baby upset
- Parent returns, greets baby, offers comfort if upset; stranger leaves (the reunion; hallmark of the experiment)
- Parent leaves room
- Stranger enters and offers comfort
- Parent returns, offers comfort; second reunion
Secure attachment characteristics? Percentage?
65% in N America
Mom is secure base for the child
- Child actively explores while alone with mom
- May be visibly upset by separations
- Greets mom warmly when she returns (although may still be distressed)
- If highly distressed, seeks physical contact with her; alleviates stress
- Outgoing with strangers with mom present
Insecure attachment- what are the three categories? Percentages?
- Resistant/ambivalent (10%)
- Avoidant (20%)
- Disorganized/disoriented (5-10%)
Resistant/ambivalent insecure attachment characteristics?
- Tries to stay close to mom but explores very little when she is present
- Becomes distressed when mom leaves
- When she returns, child is ambivalent (remain near but angry for leaving- hit or arch back, resists physical contact initiated by mom)
- Wary of strangers, even with mom present
Avoidant insecure attachment characteristics?
- Show little distress when separated from mom
- Will turn away and continue to ignore moms, even when they are trying to get their attention
- Possibly sociable with stranger but may ignore them
5-10%; the one most associated with pathology (no real strategy for dealing)
- Curious combo of resistant and avoidant patterns
- Confused about whether to approach or avoid the caregiver
- Upon reunion, child may act dazed or freeze, or move closer but then abruptly move away as mom draws near (or may show both patterns in the different reunion episodes)
Is pattern of attachment (secure vs. insecure) genetic?
Not per se, but is commonly passed down generationally, so someone with insecure attachment is likely to have child with insecure attachment