5: Blood transfusion Flashcards Preview

Haematology Week 1 2018/19 > 5: Blood transfusion > Flashcards

Flashcards in 5: Blood transfusion Deck (33)
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1

Blood donors must be ___.

healthy

so healthy weight, not anaemic, not infected with stuff, fully health screened

2

How long can RBCs be stored for?

35 days

3

How long can fresh frozen plasma (FFP) be stored for?

3 years

4

How long can platelets be stored for?

7 days

5

What does FFP contain?

Clotting factors

6

Different individuals have different blood ___.

blood groups

7

Which blood group system is coded for by chromosome 9?

ABO system

8

What is a blood group?

Antigens expressed on the surface of red blood cells

36 different types, inherited from parents

9

What is Landsteiner's Law?

If you LACK an A or B antigen, antibodies to A or B antigens will be found in your blood from birth

10

What type of antibodies act against A and B antigens?

Anti-A IgM antibodies act against cells with B antigen

Anti-B IgM antibodies act against cells with A antigen

11

What do anti-A and anti-B antibodies cause?

Haemolysis of red blood cells with the corresponding antigens

12

What antibodies are produced by patients with blood group

a) O

b) A

c) B

d) AB?

a) Anti-A and Anti-B

b) Anti-B

c) Anti-A

d) None

You produce antibodies for the antigens you DON'T have

13

What is the next important blood group system after ABO?

Rhesus system

14

What is the genotype of a

a) Rhesus positive (Rh+)

b) Rhesus negative (Rh-) patient?

a) DD or Dd

b) dd

15

What happens to RhD negative patients if they are exposed to RhD positive blood?

Transfusion reaction

Haemolytic disease of newborn

link back to obstetrics

16

What are the two important blood group systems you need to know?

ABO system

Rh system

17

What is the name of the process which involves determining the blood group of a person by adding antibodies to a sample of blood?

Cross matching

18

Before receiving blood transfusions, patient ___ ___ must be identified.

blood groups

19

What is agglutination?

Clumping of red cells

because antibodies can bind to more than one red cell, bringing them together

20

Some antibodies don't cause agglutination because they only have one / two binding sites.

How is this problem overcome?

Anti-human globulin

protein which binds to the ANTIBODIES, cause agglutination

21

Blood used for transfusions needs to be ___ with the patient blood group and antibodies.

compatible

the process of finding out if this is the case or not is called 'cross matching'

22

In which situations is a blood transfusion indicated?

Symptomatic anaemia

Major haemorrhage

23

Under which haemoglobin concentration is a blood transfusion indicated?

< 70 g/L

24

Under which haemoglobin concentration is a blood transfusion indicated for patients with cardiac disease?

< 80 g/L

25

In which situations is a platelet transfusion indicated?

Thrombocytopaenia +/- bleeding

Bone marrow failure

26

FFP contains clotting factors.

In which situations is an FFP transfusion indicated?

Rx bleeding or prevention of bleeding in patients with COAGULOPATHIES

Massive haemorrhage

27

Patients need to be correctly ___ at each step of requesting a blood transfusion.

identified

28

What does group and screen mean?

A check for patient's ABO group and antibody status

29

What happens to incorrectly or incompletely labelled blood samples?

Rejection by lab

30

When should observations be carried out on a patient receiving a blood transfusion?

Before transfusion

15 minutes post-admin

60 minutes post-completion