8: Iron in health and disease Flashcards Preview

Haematology Week 1 2018/19 > 8: Iron in health and disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in 8: Iron in health and disease Deck (47)
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1

What process is iron essential for?

Oxygen transport by RBCs

2

What part of respiration is iron essential for?

Cytochrome system (electron transport)

3

What are the two forms of iron found in the body?

Ferrous iron (Fe2+)

Ferric iron (Fe3+)

4

Iron is ___ in high concentrations - why?

toxic

produces free radicals - oxidative stress

5

Where is most iron found in the body?

Within RBCs as haemoglobin

6

Which cells, found in the bone marrow, contain a lot of iron?

Bone marrow macrophages

7

Where is haem produced?

Cytosol of RBC precursors

8

Which organ stores iron as ferritin?

Liver

9

Where in the GI tract is iron absorbed?

Duodenum

10

Which protein converts Fe3+ to Fe2+ in the duodenum?

Cytochrome B

11

Which transport protein moves iron from the lumen of the duodenum into the enterocytes?

DMT-1

12

Which proteins transport iron

a) into duodenal enterocytes

b) from the enterocytes to the circulation

c) through the circulation to the bone marrow?

a) DMT-1

b) Ferroportin

c) Transferrin

13

Where does iron go to be stored if it isn't transported directly to the bone marrow?

Liver

14

Which organ detects iron levels and acts to decrease absorption if there is iron overload?

Liver

15

Which protein, produced by the liver, decreases iron absorption?

Hepcidin

16

In what forms is iron

a) found in red blood cells

b) transported in the circulation

c) stored in the liver?

a) Haemoglobin

b) Transferrin

c) Ferritin

17

Does hepcidin's effect on ferroportin cause an iron deficiency?

No

The iron is there but it can't reach the circulation

Lack of iron availability

18

How many iron ions can transferrin carry at once?

2

19

How does transferrin know where to deliver iron ions?

Cells express transferrin receptors

20

Which tissue is rich in transferrin receptors?

Bone marrow

21

Which cells express transferrin receptors?

Bone marrow macrophages (bone marrow)

Hepatocytes (liver)

22

What happens to transferrin saturation in

a) iron overload

b) iron deficiency?

a) Increases

b) Decreases

23

Which measurement is mainly used to diagnose iron deficiency?

Serum ferritin

24

What does serum ferritin increase in response to?

Iron overload

But also infection, malignancy etc. because it's an acute phase protein

25

What happens to serum ferritin in patients with inadequate iron intake?

Decreases

Reflecting exhaustion of iron stores

26

What type of anaemia is caused by iron deficiency?

Microcytic hypochromic anaemia

Low Hb

Low serum ferritin

27

What are three clinical signs of iron deficiency anaemia?

Pallor - skin, conjunctiva

Koilonychia - spoon nails

Angular stomatitis

28

Why might a patient be iron deficient?

Inadequate iron intake

Bleeding

Malabsorption

29

What is occult blood loss?

Bleeding which isn't detected by the patient or the doctor

e.g GI bleeds - peptic ulcers, tumours

30

What causes anaemia of chronic disease?

Inflammatory cytokines associated with chronic disease