What does anaemia mean?
> Reduced total red cell mass
What measurements are used to diagnose anaemia?
Haemoglobin concentration or Haematocrit
because you can't actually measure red cell mass
What is haematocrit?
Volume of red blood cells / Blood volume
In what situations can anaemia be mistakenly diagnosed?
Rapid plasma expansion (e.g fluids)
because the total blood volume changes, not the red cell volume
What happens to the rate of red blood cell production in anaemia?
What is an increase in immature red cell number called?
What is an immature red blood cell called?
What process occurs in the bone marrow in anaemia?
What tool is used to get a FBC, MCV, red/white cell number etc?
Automated cell counter
Reticulocytes still have residual RNA.
What colour does this RNA turn on a blood film?
What are three measurements given by an automated cell counter re: RBCs?
Red cell count
Mean cell volume (MCV)
What are the two main causes of anaemia?
Increased RBC loss
Decreased RBC production
What should happen to cell size as progenitor red blood cells divide?
Cell size should decrease
Microcytic anaemia is caused by a problem with ___ synthesis.
What size are red blood cells in anaemia caused by decreased haemoglobin synthesis?
What is the most common cause of microcytic anaemia?
Iron deficiency is the most common reason for microcytic anaemia.
What is a deficiency of globins called?
another common reason for microcytic anaemia
Where is most body iron found?
rest in macrophages, liver, bone marrow
In what form is iron stored in the liver?
Which transport protein takes iron from the blood to macrophages in the bone marrow?
Which cells transfer iron to red blood cells in the bone marrow?
Bone marrow macrophages
In what forms is iron
a) functioning in the body
b) transported in the circulation
c) stored in the liver?
What two measurements show that a patient has iron deficiency?
Low storage ferritin
Low haemoglobin (functional iron)
What are three causes of iron deficiency?
Inadequate iron intake
(Men / Women) are more likely to be iron deficient.
Men tend to have greater iron intakes
From which part of the GI tract is iron absorbed?
Which autoimmune condition affects the proximal jejunum and can therefore cause iron deficiency?
What are some chronic causes of blood loss which might cause an iron deficiency?
GI - peptic ulcers, H pylori, insidious tumours
Gynae - menorrhagia
Renal - haematuria (AKI)
What are some clinical signs of iron deficiency?
Iron deficiency causes a (microcytic / macrocytic) anaemia.
because the problem is with hb synthesis in the cytoplasm, not nucleus