3: Anaemia and microcytic anaemia Flashcards Preview

Haematology Week 1 2018/19 > 3: Anaemia and microcytic anaemia > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3: Anaemia and microcytic anaemia Deck (37)
Loading flashcards...
1

What does anaemia mean?

Without blood

> Reduced total red cell mass

2

What measurements are used to diagnose anaemia?

Haemoglobin concentration or Haematocrit

because you can't actually measure red cell mass

3

What is haematocrit?

Volume of red blood cells / Blood volume

4

In what situations can anaemia be mistakenly diagnosed?

Rapid bleeding

Rapid plasma expansion (e.g fluids)

because the total blood volume changes, not the red cell volume

5

What happens to the rate of red blood cell production in anaemia?

Increases

6

What is an increase in immature red cell number called?

Reticulocytosis

7

What is an immature red blood cell called?

Reticulocyte

8

What process occurs in the bone marrow in anaemia?

Reticulocytosis

9

What tool is used to get a FBC, MCV, red/white cell number etc?

Automated cell counter

10

Reticulocytes still have residual RNA.

What colour does this RNA turn on a blood film?

"Polychromatic"

Blue-grey

11

What are three measurements given by an automated cell counter re: RBCs?

Haemoglobin concentration

Red cell count

Mean cell volume (MCV)

12

What are the two main causes of anaemia?

Increased RBC loss

Decreased RBC production

13

What should happen to cell size as progenitor red blood cells divide?

Cell size should decrease

14

Microcytic anaemia is caused by a problem with ___ synthesis.

haemoglobin synthesis

15

What size are red blood cells in anaemia caused by decreased haemoglobin synthesis?

Small

Microcytic anaemia

16

What is the most common cause of microcytic anaemia?

Iron deficiency

17

Iron deficiency is the most common reason for microcytic anaemia.

What is a deficiency of globins called?

Thalassaemia

another common reason for microcytic anaemia

18

Where is most body iron found?

RBCs

rest in macrophages, liver, bone marrow

19

In what form is iron stored in the liver?

Ferritin

20

Which transport protein takes iron from the blood to macrophages in the bone marrow?

Transferrin

21

Which cells transfer iron to red blood cells in the bone marrow?

Bone marrow macrophages

22

In what forms is iron

a) functioning in the body

b) transported in the circulation

c) stored in the liver?

a) Haemoglobin

b) Transferrin

c) Ferritin

23

What two measurements show that a patient has iron deficiency?

Low storage ferritin

Low haemoglobin (functional iron)

24

What are three causes of iron deficiency?

Inadequate iron intake

Malabsorption

Blood loss

25

(Men / Women) are more likely to be iron deficient.

Women

Men tend to have greater iron intakes

26

From which part of the GI tract is iron absorbed?

Proximal jejunum

27

Which autoimmune condition affects the proximal jejunum and can therefore cause iron deficiency?

Coeliac disease

28

What are some chronic causes of blood loss which might cause an iron deficiency?

GI - peptic ulcers, H pylori, insidious tumours

Gynae - menorrhagia

Renal - haematuria (AKI)

29

What are some clinical signs of iron deficiency?

Koilonychia

Angular stomatitis

Glossitis

30

Iron deficiency causes a (microcytic / macrocytic) anaemia.

microcytic

because the problem is with hb synthesis in the cytoplasm, not nucleus