7: Haemolysis Flashcards Preview

Haematology Week 1 2018/19 > 7: Haemolysis > Flashcards

Flashcards in 7: Haemolysis Deck (48)
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1

What are the products of red blood cell breakdown?

Iron

Bilirubin

Amino acids

2

How long does a red blood cell normally last in the circulation?

120 days

3

What is haemolysis?

Premature RBC destruction 

4

What shape are red blood cells?

Biconcave

Greater surface area, allows them to squeeze through bone marrow and high pressure circulation

5

Which organelles do red blood cells lack?

Nucleus

Mitochondria

6

What process compensates for haemolysis?

Erythropoiesis

i.e RBC production

7

In compensated haemolysis, ___ concentration is maintained within normal limits.

Hb

8

In ___ haemolysis, Hb concentration decreases.

decompensated haemolysis

9

What change occurs in the bone marrow secondary to haemolysis?

Hyperplasia

10

What clinical sign can be seen in patients with haemolysis?

Jaundice

Increased levels of bilirubin

11

Which kind of cells are seen in increased numbers in the bone marrow in response to anaemia?

Reticulocytes

Reticulocytosis

12

Why do reticulocytes stain blue-grey (polychromatic) on a blood film?

They still have RNA

Producing cells of different colours, i.e a polychromasia

13

Is reticulocytosis only seen in haemolytic anaemia?

No

Bone marrow response to anaemia - bleeding, iron deficiency etc.

14

How are reticulocytes described when stained on a blood film?

Polychromatic

15

What is erythroid hyperplasia?

Increase in bone marrow cell number in response to EPO

16

In which organs can red blood cells be broken down?

Spleen

Liver

17

Apart from the spleen and liver, where can red blood cells be broken down?

Circulation

18

(Intravascular / Extravascular) haemolysis is more common.

Extravascular haemolysis more common

19

What happens to the organs in which haemolysis occurs?

Increase in size

so producing splenomegaly, hepatomegaly

20

What are the RBC products released in extravascular haemolysis?

Normal products

i.e bilirubin, iron and amino acids

21

Intravascular haemolysis is a (normal / abnormal) process.

abnormal

so the products released are abnormal as well and you get symptoms like pink urine

22

Patients given which type of blood transfusion can develop haemolysis?

Incorrect group

23

Which enzyme deficiency, increasing oxidative stress exerted on red blood cells, can cause haemolytic anaemia?

G6PD deficiency

24

Which infection can cause haemolytic anaemia?

Malaria

25

What are the two types of haemolytic anaemia?

Intravascular

Extravascular

26

What is the most common inherited disorder causing haemolytic anaemia in the UK?

Hereditary spherocytosis

27

Haemolytic anaemia is commonly caused by ___ disease.

autoimmune disease

28

Which connective tissue disease can cause autoimmune haemolysis?

SLE

29

Autoimmune haemolysis is caused by either ___ or ___ autoantibodies.

warm or cold

30

What type of antibody are warm AH antibodies?

IgG

more common than cold