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Haematology Week 1 2018/19 > 1: Introduction > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1: Introduction Deck (30)
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1

What is blood?

A type of tissue: cells suspended in a liquid called plasma

2

What is the production of blood cells called?

Haemopoiesis

3

What is haemopoiesis?

Production of blood cells

4

What are all blood cells derived from?

Haematopoiesis stem cells

5

Where does haemopoiesis occur in adults?

Bone marrow - axial skeleton only

6

Where does haemopoiesis occur in infants?

Bone marrow - all bones

Spleen

Liver

7

What are the functions of

a) RBCs

b) WBCs

c) platelets?

a) Oxygen transport; CO2 buffering

b) Protection against infection, malignancy

c) Prevention of bleeding

8

Which type of stem cell differentiates to form blood cells?

Haemopoietic stem cells

9

What three processes do haematopoietic stem cells undergo to produce blood?

Proliferation

Differentiation

Self-renewal of undifferentiated stem cells

10

(Undifferentiated / Differentiated) stem cells are hard to tell apart.

undifferentiated

11

Fully differentiated RBCs don't have which organelles?

nucleus

mitochondria

12

Which specific cell produces platelets?

Megakaryocyte

13

Which three types of white blood cell come under the term granulocyte?

Eosinophil

Basophil

Neutrophil

named according to the dye they take up

14

What are neutrophils also known as?

Polymorph

15

What do neutrophils do?

Kill other cells with granules released during phagocytosis

Attract other immune cells

16

What do neutrophils look like?

Neutral stain

Multilobar nucleus

17

What do eosinophils look like?

Pink/red stain

Bilobar nucleus

18

In which infections or diseases are eosinophils raised?

Parasitic infections

Hypersensitivity / allergic disease

19

What do basophils look like?

Stain purple

Granules obscuring nucleus

20

Which other immune cell are basophils similar to?

Mast cells

Circulating versions of mast cells, so they also degranulate (releasing histamine) in response to IgE

21

What cell is a precursor to macrophages?

Monocyte

22

Monocytes differentiate into which cell?

Macrophages

23

What else can macrophages do once they've killed a cell by phagocytosis?

Antigen presentation

24

What do lymphocytes look like when they are

a) inactivated

b) activated?

a) Small cell with rim of cytoplasm around nucleus

b) Large cell, spreading cytoplasm and nucleus

25

The precursors of blood cells (including the stem cells) are hard to tell apart using a microscope.

Which techniques can be used to tell them apart?

Immunophenotyping

Bio-assays

26

Which anatomical landmark are bone marrow samples commonly taken from?

PSIS

27

What are the three broad constituents of blood?

What are their functions?

RBCs - oxygen transport

WBCs - protection against infection

Platelets - prevention of bleeding

28

Which cells produce platelets?

Megakaryocytes

29

Monocytes / macrophages act as ___-___ cells.

antigen-presenting cells

30

What is immunophenotyping?

Telling cells apart based on the antigens they express on their cell membranes