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Flashcards in 5 coastal landscapes Deck (21)
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what is weathering and its two types

the gradual degradiation of rock tyhrough erosion
mechanical- eroded naturally by wind and pressure
chemical- eroded through chemicals


what is mass movement and its three types and what does it cause coasts to do

when rocks fall down a slope


describe all four processes of coastal erosion

abrasion- when other materials rub against it
attrition- when rocks smash into each other causing them to break down into smaller rocks
hydraulic power- when pressure forms cracks in the rock qhich eventually split


describe the process of longshore drift and the roles of swash and backwash in it

1- waves move in the direction of prevailing wind
2- material is moved along the coastline through the swash which is at an angle becuase of the prevailing wind
3-material goes back into the sea through backwash
4- material gradually gets deposited along the coastline


which landforms are formed by erosion and which landforms are formed by deposition.

why is this?

erosion- wave cut platforms. headlands and bays. caves archs stacks and stumps
deposition- spits bars sand and dunes. beaches


describe the formation of headlands and bays

they occur at a discordant coastline where the rock alternates between hard and soft at a right angle to the coastline. the area of soft rock begins to be eroded much faster, causing headlands and bays


describe the formation of a wave cut platform

wave begins to erode the soft rock which is level with it. once thats been eroded it causes the rock above it to be unstable. this unstable rock then falls


describe the formation of archs caves stacks and stumps

-resistant rock has weaknesses such as cracks
-waves crash into headlands and widen the cracks


describe the formation of beaches

beaches- low energy waves cause sand beaches which are long
high energy waves cause shringle beaches which are steep and narrow


describe the formation of spits, bars and sand dunes

spits- longshore drift deposits material past the bend. strong winds then curve the end of the spit. material behind is now sheltered
bars- when two spits meet
sand dunes- deposited sand is moved up the beach by wind


what is your example of a coastline and what are its landforms

swanage bay.
-made of hard rock chalk
-hard rock was then eroded into a cliff


what are the four hard engineering coast management strategies along side their costs and benefits

groynes-long planks in the sea. they stop LSD but are very expensive
rock armour- a load of rocks placed to protect the clif. expensuve and ugly
gabions- rocks in a cage which protects the cliff but its expensive/ugly
sea wall- protects the cliff by being a wall but its expensive/ugly


what is the difference between hard and soft engineering

hard engineering- man made
soft engineering- natural


what are the three soft engineering coast management strategies along side their costs and benefits

beach replenishment- sand and shringle from elsewhere is added to the top of the beach
drainage channels- shows the water out of the village
dune regeneration- levelling out the dune to make it a more stable surface


what is managed retreat and its advantages/disadavantages

-allows the sea to flood the land
-that land becomes marshland therefore protecting the land behind it
-cheap and easy


why were defences needed in overstrand

area of soft rock which was too easy to erode through hydraulic action


which defences were built in overstrand

-sea wall
-rock armour

-drainage channels


social, economic and enviromental issues in overstrand

car park, houses and businesses are lost. exponentially increasing over time


four examples of transportation



difference between a discordant and a concordant coastline

discordant- hard rock and soft rock alternates at a right angle to the coastline
concordant- hard rock and soft rock alternates parallel to the coastline


what was the effects of the defences put in place in overstrand

successfull at slowing erosion down and stopping LSD but they eventualy broke