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Flashcards in 500-1000 Deck (11)
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The roman's

Roman decline - invasions from barbarians. They are permanent enemies and allies. Competition
New warrior aristocracy in the west. Is this a distraction for the other groups to invade. At the barbarian Europe unstable potlucks landscape
Roman internal power struggle help barbarians get what they want - take advantage. Roman's main concern is the roman's


Rise of Islam

Rise of Islam caused many invasion at this time - Arabs very competitive group. But taken for granted that they were easy control. Therefore could play up to this idea of this desert Arab and lulled them into a false sense of security.
Vast desert landscape - was not a boundary, more like a middle ground. Leaders could merge back into the desert
Role of the bedwin - desert warrior. New warrior culture culture. Strong leadership
Believe the Quran and Muhammad are the last word all other are fakes and are willing to fight for it
The conquests took place very fast 80 years - new world from Spain to Baghdad
Why did it succeed - new player, took place in a world fearing the end of the world, paid garrisons, different kind of war, end of ancient world, plague



New totalitarian system - no choice society is the church
Conversion of first emperor Constantine is the crucial factor and starting point. After this all Christian except Julian
Benefits for their church
Emphasis of paganism
Rising rapid


Byzantium and the west

Crisis for empire in the 7th century. Arab invasions meaning the fall of cathrage in 697 - empire losing territory and resources fast to Arabs in 7th
Failure of Arab seizure of Constantinople in 717/18 - set back
New allies in the Franks for popes is this an anti Byzantium move
774 Charlemagne invades Italy


Charlemagne and the Franks

New power shift to the Franks
Acts quickly to do stuff that haven't been done before
Saxons - 772 southern group tries takes offerings to blow morale.they retailed
How they were defeated were written differently
Easy to conquest no kings/ permanent central institutions. Few and disorganized. Took 30 yrs
He used aggressive campaigning - determined to be the only ruler
He had a good relationship with the Pope - Pope had temporal authority over the civilised world could help him out


The Vikings

Started at the end of this time period - raid after raid. Patterns increasing and the scale of raid more intense
Internal weakness in the west pulled Viking over - Carolingian disputes/ England divided. Therefore easy target
However original force may have included Vikings active in England
First raids - small no on lindifarne
Got bigger until great army arrives in England in 865. Collapse of Northumbria, east Anglia and Mercia
Unclear the impact that had. In England 3 kingdoms disappear. Dublin falls. However no francia king falls. Is it just internal struggle.
Some areas stayed in Scandinavia rule for the best part of a century
We're beatable as they took too long to get ships etc
Sources one sided


Charlemagne sources

Collins 2010
Wickham 2009
Innes 2007


Islam sources

Brown 2013 - the rise of western Christendom


Christianity sources

Rollason 2012 - early medieval Europe 300-1050


The Vikings source

s.brink,n.price 2008 - the Viking world


Byzantium sources

J Haldon 2009.