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Flashcards in The First Crusade Deck (5)
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1

Paragraph 1 - the promise

Pope urban the second called for crusade promised to abolish any sins they had. Destination was Jerusalem - dominant due to relics etc
People scared of purgatory - needed to join. Promised by Pope so must be true
Motivations of crusaders debated - land hungry or pious knight? Both extreme
Also view of end of the world
Popes message drew attention to groups he did not mean to, women, old, sick, poor.
If he could he would have made it simply knights - impossible
Drew attention of audience at clermont by showing you can gain wealth and status, without penance. Knew how to get all groups

2

Paragraph 2 - the people's crusade

Many had no other reason to stay - stuck between religion and politics therefore joined the crusade
Also known as the peasants crusade - viewed as the poor
Not very popular and did the go far. They were negligible and a burden to the others
But did start all across Europe with a grass root enthusiasm stirred by independent preachers
Short lived and runs into trouble in Hungary. Shows who is really behind the crusade
Responsible for the Rhineland massacres unsure what they were actually doing it for
Looted captured cities - source of income for crusaders
Maybe just for land / income

3

Paragraph 3- the princes crusade

Real fighting force 5 main armies made up of nobles / princes
All meet emperor at Constantinople need to swear that they will give everything back to Byzantium
Some try to get around this - had other ideas??
Rise in knighthoods - glory seeking warriors. Knights in search of fame and rec for example Richard the monk - he was an eyewitness in events he wasn't at
A lot of instances of this - not religious
Took part in order to get knighthoods/to prove themselves - Thomas of marle
On a raid of Baldwin 1 near hebron 1100 - 40 were crusader were found to have secretly to go ahead to obtain money and booty
Fulcher had the idea it was only princes - therefore no idea how many other nobles


4

Paragraph 4.- the capture

Edessa captured - marries daughter of leader. Antioch breaks many spirit many go home as it took time - pushed through
Jerusalem in July 1099 killed everyone in there tracks non-religious massacre. Crusader leader
No idea to do next not cut out for this
In the west seen as conquering heroes - new kind of religious war

5

First crusade source

Cobb 2014
Kosnick 2008