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Flashcards in 5018 Unit 3 Deck (53)
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1

Simplest arrangement where you deliver a discrete consequence for each discrete response

Continuous reinforcement

2

Reinforcement only sometimes follows target response

Intermittent reinforcement

3

Reinforcement is provided following a pre-specified number of responses

Ratio schedules

4

Two Varieties of Ratio Schedule

Fixed Ratio (FR)
Variable Ratio (VR)

5

Deliver reinforcer after the last of a fixed number of responses

Fixed Ratio

6

Arrange reinforcers for the last of number of responses that varies from one reinforcer to the next

Variable Ratio

7

Reinforcement provided for the first response that follows some amount of time

Interval Schedules

8

Two Varieties of Interval Schedule

Fixed-interval (FI)
Variable-interval (VI)

9

Reinforcement delivered contingent on first response after some constant time period has elapsed

Fixed-interval

10

Arrange reinforcers contingent on first response after a specified time, but time varies from one reinforcer to the next

Variable-interval

11

Deliver stimuli known in other contexts to be reinforcers solely on the basis of time independent of responding

Response-independent schedules (time-based)

12

Two Varieties of Time-Based Schedule

Fixed Time (FT)
Variable Time (VT)

13

Reinforcer delivered after some constant time period has elapsed

Fixed Time (FT)

14

Arrange reinforcers after a specified time, but the time varies from one reinforcer to the next

Variable Time

15

Some responses are reinforced and others are not

Differential Reinforcement

16

t s without response, then 1 response, decrease or slow down bx

DRL (low rate)

17

1 response within t s or less of last response; increase or speed up bx

DRH (high rate)

18

t s without a response

DRO (omission)

19

contingent on alternative response, often in the absence of target response

DRA (alternative)

20

Task materials and relevant instructions do not occasion predetermined level of performance in absence of prompts

Skill deficit

21

The skill is intact, but the person is unmotivated to respond under appropriate stimulus conditions

Performance (motivational) deficit

22

Some property of responding is gradually changed by differentially reinforcing successive approximations to target behavior

Shaping

23

Components of Shaping

Reinforcement and Extinction

24

This shaping component increases response variability allowing novel response form to contact reinforcement

Extinction

25

Ways to increase response diversity

Extinction
Lag reinforcement schedules

26

Number of responses separating current response from an earlier one like it

Lag

27

Current response is reinforced if it differs from the last preceding responses along the specified dimension

Lag reinforcement schedule

28

Reinforcing only unprompted correct responses lead to

infrequent reinforcers

29

Reinforcing physically guided responses lead to

risk of strengthening behavior that will not generalize beyond the learning setting

30

Ultimate goal of prompting

promote independent responding