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Flashcards in 5018 Unit 8 Deck (76)
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1

Top-down approach, large to small
Theory-hypothesis-test hypothesis-specific answer

Deductive Research Paradigm

2

Bottom-up, small to large
data-analysis-generalize

Inductive Research Paradigm

3

Required in deductive approach to interpret data

Statistics; quantitative data

4

Required in inductive research paradigm

Qualitative approach

5

Four types of data

Nominal
Ordinal
Interval
Ratio

6

Type of data that refers to categories

Nominal

7

Type of data that refers to order

Ordinal

8

Type of data where difference between each value is even

Interval

9

Type of data where difference between each value is even and has a true zero

Ratio

10

Three measures of central tendency

Mean
Median
Mode

11

Sum of scores divided by number of scores; most preferred measure of central tendency

Mean

12

Score that divides distribution exactly in half; gives two groups of equal sizes

Median

13

Score that has the greatest frequency

Mode

14

Two types of Mode

Bimodal
Multimodal

15

Two modes or peaks

Bimodal

16

More than two modes

Multimodal

17

Used for nominal scales, discrete variables, or describing shape

Mode

18

Used for extreme scores, skewed distribution, undetermined values, and open-ended distributions

Median

19

Three measures of variability

Range
Interquartile range
Standard Deviation

20

Describes the distribution in terms of distance from the mean or between two scores; how spread out or clustered together scores are in a distribution

Variability

21

Distance between targets score and smallest score + 1

Range

22

Criticisms of Range

Crude and unreliable measure of variability
Does not consider all scores in the distribution

23

Most important measure of variability that measure typical distance from mean and uses all scores in the distribution

Standard deviation

24

A tool in inferential statistics that measure the likelihood of an event

Probability

25

Two types of probability

Subjective
Objective

26

How to express probability

Always positive
Can be in the form of fractions, decimals or percentages

27

Each individual in the population has an equal chance of being selected; there must be constant probability for each and every selection

Random sampling

28

The most common occurring shape for population distribution

Normal shaped distributions

29

Provide incomplete pictures of the population

Samples

30

The discrepancy, or amount of error between a sample statistic and its corresponding population parameter

Sampling error