2+ people related by birth, marriage, adoption, or choice who have strong emotional ties and responsibilities to each other (US Census Bureau)
What percentage of households have kids?
(mostly in married couple, then female, then male householder)
Number of children in households by percentage?
- 55% have no children
- 19% have 1 child
- 16% have 2 children
- 9% have 3+ children
2 major dimensions of parenting influences?
- Demandingness/control- amount of oversight parents offer
- Acceptance/responsiveness- amt of investment and caring (warmth) (pic 1)
4 different parental styles based on the 2 major dimensions of parenting influences?
- Permissive: low demandingness/control with high responsiveness/acceptance
- Authoritative: high demandingness/control with high responsiveness/acceptance
- Authoritarian- high demandingness/control with low responsiveness/acceptance
- Permissive-neglecting- low demandingness/control with low responsiveness/acceptance
Characteristics of authoritarian parents?
(high control, low responsiveness)
- imposes rules
- expects obedience
- discusses little
- uses forceful tactics
(That 70s Show Clip)
(Dead Poet's Society Clip)
Characteristics of kids with authoritarian parents?
(high control, low responsiveness)
- Toddlers: defiant and impulsive
- Children: moody, unhappy, easily annoyed and unfriendly
- Adolescents: average school achievement, non-deviant, low self-reliance, low self-esteem
(That 70s Show Clip)
(Dead Poet's Society Clip)
Characteristics of kids with permissive parents?
(low control, high responsiveness)
- Toddlers: prone to tantrums, non-compliant, poorly attentive
- Children: impulsive and aggressive (esp boys), bossy, self-centered, lacking self-control, lacking self-reliance, negative academic achievement
- Adolescents: fair on social competence, moderate self-confidence, + and - self-esteem, negative school engagement, prone to drug and alcohol abuse, tendency toward disruptive behaviors
(Think: Regina's mom from Mean Girls)
(Think: Veruca's dad in Charlie/Choco Factory)
Characteristics of kids with permissive-neglecting parents?
(low control, low responsiveness)
- Not clearly studied in Baumrind's studies
- Children were high in aggression and asocial behaviors
Characteristics of authoritative parents?
(high control, high responsiveness)
- Controlling but flexible
- Provides rationales for rules
- Seeks children's input
(Full House clip)
Characteristics of kids with authoritative parents?
- Toddlers: compliant
- Children: cheerful, responsible, self-reliant, achievement-oriented, cooperative
- Adolescents: positive self-esteem, positive social skills, positive moral and pro-social concern, positive academic achievement, low on measures of internalized distress
(Full House Clip)
What is the Transactional Model of Family Influence?
Recognizes that children influence parenting as much as parenting influences children
In what groups are different parenting styles seen?
- Socioeconomic groups (SES)
- Ethnic groups
How does parenting style differ by SES?
- Poverty living and its stresses contribute to authoritarian styles over-represented
- Relation between social class and parenting styles may be related to people focusing on the skills needed by workers in their respective fields
How does parenting style differ ethnically: Native American and Hispanic?
Stress communal rather than individual goals, maintain close ties to relatives, and demand proper and polite behaviors instead of competitiveness and pursuit of individual goals
How does parenting style differ ethnically: Asian-Americans?
Stress self-discipline, interpersonal cooperation (may appear more authoritarian)
How does parenting style differ ethnically: African-American?
"No-nonsense parenting" (falls somewhere between authoritarian and authoritative); may be adaptive in situations where supervision cannot be provided or the environment is threatening
Which parenting style has the best outcome?
- The link between authoritative parenting and positive developmental outcomes exists for many racial and ethnic groups studied both in the US and elsewhere
What influential factors are brought up by siblings?
- Birth order
- Sibling rivalry
Birth order: characteristics of first-born?
- "Guinea pigs" (parents have a lot of enthusiasm and little practical experience); parents have high expectations and are both more affectionate and more punitive towards them
- Tend to have higher IQ, more likely to go to college, more likely to conform to parents' and adults' requests
Birth order: characteristics of later children?
- Parents have more realistic expectations, and are more relaxed in discipline
- Tend to be less concerned about pleasing parents and adults, more popular with peers, and more innovative
Birth order: characteristics of only children?
- Similar to first children
- Comprehensive analysis of 100+ studies shows little difference in terms of being "spoiled brats"
- Tend to succeed more in school, and higher levels of intelligence, leadership, autonomy, and maturity
How to minimize sibling rivalry?
Minimized when parents continue to provide love and attention to older children and encourage them to form a care-taking role with the new baby
Siblings are more likely to be warm and harmonious to each other when?
- With same sex siblings
- When neither sibling is too emotional
- As the younger child approaches adolescence
- When parents don't play favorites and treat all siblings fairly
- Lack of marital conflict (marital conflict is a good predictor of antagonistic sibling interactions)
Benefits of siblings?
- Aid in emotional understanding
- Promote negotiation and compromise
- More mature forms of moral reasoning
Demographics of divorce:
- What percentage of couples get divorced?
- What percentage of kids have divorced parents?
- 50-60% of newly married couples can expect to divorce
- About 40% of US kids have divorced parents
What is the psychological risk for kids of divorce?
2x that of kids with intact families
- 20-25% of children of divorce
- 10% of children of intact families
- 75-80% of children from divorce exhibit resiliency
Impact of divorce: preschool age kids (short term)?
- Separation anxiety
- Generalized anxiety
- Sleep problems
Impact of divorce: preschool age kids (long term)?
- Unconscious feelings about causality
- Decreased self-worth
- Conduct disorders
- Developmental delays
Impact of divorce: middle school age kids (short term)?
- Feelings about responsibility
- Conflicts of loyalty
- Decreased school performance
- Conflictual peer relationships
Impact of divorce: middle school age kids (long term)?
- Unrealistic longings for reconciliation
- Antisocial behaviors
- Academic problems
Impact of divorce: adolescents (short term)?
- Acute depression
- Accelerated and/or conflicted separation/individuation process
Impact of divorce: adolescents (long term)?
- Substance abuse
- Suicidal ideation
- Relationship problems
Impact of divorce on all (long-term)?
- Unwanted pregnancies
- Weaker marital relationships
- Lower SES attainment
Risk factors for kids in divorce?
- High level of inter-parental conflict
- Extended family conflict
- Reduced economic circumstances
- Complex step-parent homes
- Ongoing legal battles
Protective factors for kids in divorce?
- Good relationships with at least one parent who remains involved
- Support of sibblings
- Support of peers
- Continued contact with opposite sex parent if that parent is reasonably healthy
- Supportive grandparents or other extended family
Tips for divorcing parents?
- Don't keep it a secret or wait til last minute
- Tell your child with your spouse
- Keep things simple and straight-forward
- Tell them the divorce is not their fault
- Admit that this will be sad and upsetting for everyone
- Reassure child that you both still love them and will always be their parents
- Do not discuss each other's faults or problems with the child
What did Harlow's monkey experiments show in terms of peers? (Peer deprivation)
Raised monkeys alone with peer deprivation
- Showed abnormal patterns of sociability
- When exposed to age-mates, became avoidant or aggressive
What did Harlow's monkey experiments show in terms of peers? (Peer-only monkeys)
- Formed strong reciprocal attachments
- Excessively clingy
- Highly distressed over minor things
- As adults aggressive towards non-peer monkeys
What was found in 6 3 yo kids living alone in Nazi concentration camp (parents killed at 12 mo and received minimal caregiving from inmates); raised themselves?
- Indifferent/hostile towards staff, aggressive/upset when separated at the treatment center
- Eventually had + relationships with adult caregivers and were okay 35 years later
What are the sociometric peer classifications?
Friendship qualifications (gradient)?
- Shared activity -> psychological similarity -> reciprocal emotional commitments
Security and social support provided by peer influences
- Having 1+ supportive friend reduces loneliness and victimization of unpopular children
- Children who enter KG with friends have fewer adjustment problems
What lab result was found after conversations with acquaintances vs. friends?
Higher saliva cortisol (indicative of stress)
Peer influences on conformity?
- Preschool children who are criticized for cross-sex play stop the activity in under 1 min
- Peers are influential on things like clothes, social events, and recreational activities
How many hours per day do kids spend using media? Primary modality?
7 hours TV
- > 50% of kids under 2 yo watch 90+ min/day
- 8-10 yo watch 3.4 hrs/day
- 11-14 yo watch 5 hrs/day
- 15-18 yo watch 4 hrs/day
Having a TV in bedroom increases amts by 1-2 hrs a day (over those above)
Boys tend to watch more tv
Why is excessive television problematic?
- Associated with increased weight in males
- Associated with sleep deprivation in girls
- May lead away from other activities that are more physical and social
- Amt of violence and different developmental levels of understanding
What percentage of programs (6am-11pm) had violent acts?
T/F: Watching violent program and behaving violently are reciprocal?
What is another effect of TV and violence in terms of world beliefs?
Develop mean world beliefs
- View the world as a violent place where people rely on aggression to solve problems
- Can desensitize to violence
Addressing violence with families (tips)?
- Even though actor not hurt/killed, violence in real life results in pain or death
- Refuse to let children see shows known to be violent; change channel/turn off TV when something offensive comes on with explanation of what is wrong
- Disapprove of violent episodes in front of children, stressing belief that such behavior is not the best way to resolve a problem
- To offset peer pressure among friends and classmates, contact other parents and agree to enforce similar rules about length of time and type of program the children may watch
T/F: TV is not a good influence
- Sesame street (preschoolers get increased vocab, pre-reading, and numeracy skills even when watched alone- unlike other shows)
- Clifford and Dora increase expressive language skills
How can TV be beneficial?
- Tool to teach children about social relationships
- Can encourage prosocial behaviors if parents reinforce lessons
- Conflict resolution
- Exposure to people, cultures, and ideas not necessarily typical of the community the child lives in
How much tv should kids watch before the age of 2? After?
Before 2: none (detrimental to language devo)
After 2: limit to 1-2 hrs/day
Positives and negatives of computers/videogames?
- Action-oriented videogames are associated with improved motor control, attention, vision, cognition, visual memory, and set shifting
- 94% of videogames marketed for teens had violence
- Violent videogames have been found to be associated with short and long term aggression (particularly in males)
Positive aspects of social media?
- Staying connected to friends
- Developing new social contacts with peers with similar interests
- Sharing content of self-expression, such as art, music, and political views
- Developing and expressing your individual identity
Negatives aspects of social media?
- Bullying online ("cyber-bullying")
- Sharing too much info
- Vulnerablity to predatory adults
- Sharing photos/video that you later regret
- Exposure to large amts of commercial advertisements which may not be age-appropriate
- Risk of identity theft
- Reduced amt of time for physical activity